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The Influence of Different Nanomaterials
on the Growth of Fungi
Kholod K Salama1*, Mona F Ali2 and Said M El-Sheikh3
1National museum of Egyptian civilization, Egypt
2Faculty of Archaeology, Department of Conservation, Cairo university, Egypt
3Nano-Structured Materials and Nanotechnology Division, Advanced Materials Department Central Metallurgical Research & Development (CMRDI), Egypt
Submission:July 28, 2018; Published: August 19, 2019
*Corresponding author: Kholod K Salama, National museum of Egyptian civilization, Cairo, Egypt
How to cite this article: Kholod K Salama, Mona F Ali, Said M El-Sheikh. The Influence of Different Nanomaterials on the Growth of Fungi.
Glob J Arch & Anthropol. 2019; 10(3): 555788. DOI: 10.19080/GJAA.2019.10.555788
All paintings especially stored in unsuitable conditions suffered from microbial deterioration appeared as stains and discoloration (Figure 1). Bio deterioration is an undesirable process triggered by living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, algae and lichens which can affect cultural heritage and economically important materials. . The physical factors which affect the growth of microorganisms are humidity, temperature and light. Some authors suggest bacteria as the first agents in the colonization of the mural paintings thus providing organic matter to the
next colonizers fungi and lichens . The metabolism of these microorganisms secretes oxalic acid (H2C2O4) which can react with calcite CaCO3 present in the paintings giving rise to calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) . The growth of biological agents such as fungi is identified as a determinant factor in the degradation of the murals can cause vital deterioration factors such as discoloration of the mural surfaces, detachment of the fragments and biofilms formation. on other hand the bacilli generate energy from the oxidation of reduced sulphur compounds producing sulphuric acid as the end product  (Figure 1).
Currently in this paper nano materials which probably used
for cleaning such as nano titanium dioxide, which is common in
self-cleaning material, nano calcium hydroxide which consider
the most successful consolidation nano materials, and nano silica,
nano calcium carbonate which are probably used as filler in
consolidation process. Those nano materials are already used for
Cleaning and consolidation mural paintings.
The samples recovered with sterile swabs were mechanically
shaken for IH and inoculated under aseptic condition in different
culture media specific to each microorganisms nutrient agar for
bacteria , malt extract agar for filamentous fungi and yeast Extract
peptone Dextrose agar for yeasts the cultures incubated at
30 °C for bacteria and fungi respectively the identification of the
microbial isolates was performed based on the observation and
macroscopic features such as texture and color of the colonies ,
hyphae morphology and observed with an optical microscope
(OM) (Leica DM2500P) whose images were acquired in a camera
Leica DFC290HD .
Current mural painting entails six fungi A. Fumigatus, Asergilluse
Flavus, Asergilluse Niger, Asergilluse Terrus, Fuzarium and
Penicillum specie. The aim of this work is not only the isolation
and characterization of the microbial organism affecting the mural
painting of the Coptic museum storage backs to saint Jeremiah
monastery 5th century but also identify the role of nano material
especially the nano materials will be used in cleaning and consolidation
the undertaken mural painting which restored using nano
materials  .
Disc-diffusion test is a test of the material sensitivity for organisms.
Currently nano materials are used to test the effectiveness
on the diagnosis microorganisms. In this test, wafers containing
nanomaterials are placed on an agar plate where fungi have
been placed, and the plate is left to incubate. If the material stops
the fungi from growing or kills them, there will be an area around
the wafer where the fungi have not grown enough to be visible.
Currently in this study the nano-materials effect the growth of
fungi through measuring the diameter of clear zone or measuring
the diameter of fungal colony then comparing the results before
and after the test , even the diameter of the fungal colony shorter
than the diameter of clear zone after adding the anti-material that
is mean the material is effected the fungi
All nano materials purchased from nano tech com. LTD (nano
silica, nano calcium carbonate, nano calcium hydroxide, and nano
titanium dioxide) prepared in conc. 2% in ethanol (purity >99%).
Preparation of the mixed nanomaterial / system. The nanomaterial
was sonicated in ultrasonic power 100 for 1 hour to make a
Nano SiO2: There are microorganisms colonizing on Si-O so
nano silica has affected some microorganisms as A.Fumigatus (
the diameter of clear zone) was 2cm that assured the success of
nano material in stop the growth of A.Fumigatus Figure 2 Nano
Ca(OH)2: assured it is success in consolidation and creating membrane
helps in fumigation currently in this study with its circumstances
the nano calcium hydroxide affected A. Fumigatus Fig.2 as
the diameter of clear zone was 1.5cm A. Fumigatus and according
to terrus with the diameter of clear zone was 2cm the nano material
stopped the growth of Terrus. Figure 2 Nano CaCO3: there are
microorganisms colonizing CO3 as microorganisms attacking calcinid
stone. so nano calcium carbonate hasn’t affected any microorganisms.
It is well known that the mixture of Titanium dioxide
nanoparticles or zinc oxide nanoparticles with calcium hydroxide
nanoparticles giving a big protection from the microorganisms
specially the calcinied stones but currently in this study with its
circumstances the nano calcium carbonate affected fungi as A. Fumigatus
Figure 2 with the diameter of clear zone 2.5cm and Niger
Figure 2 with the diameter of clear zone 2.5cm that means the
nano calcium carbonate stopped the growth of them.
Nano TiO2: Using Titanium dioxide 50% with calcium hydroxide
in nature light or inside artificial light they affected the Penicillium
and Niger . Currently in this study the nano titanium
dioxide affected all founded fungi as A. Fumigatus with the diameter
of clear zone 1.9cm, Asergilluse Flavus with the diameter of
clear zone 2cm, Asergilluse Niger with the diameter of clear zone
1.9cm, Asergilluse Terrus with the diameter of clear zone 1.3cm,
Fuzarium with the diameter of clear zone 2cm and Penicillum
specie with the diameter of clear zone 1.5cm. Titanium dioxide is
the most successful nano material in this study as it affects A.Fumigatus,
Asergilluse Flavus , Asergilluse Niger, Asergilluse Terrus,
Fuzarium and Penicillum specie. So nano titanium dioxide must
be mixed with material as follows:
a. The calcium hydroxide which is popular used for consolidation
must be mixed with titanium dioxide which proved
its success in fumigation with all founded kind of fungi in the
current mural painting,
b. And according to use nano silica and calcium carbonate
as filler must be also mixed with titanium dioxide which
proved its success in fumigation.
This study indicates that the paintings of saint Jeremiah monastery
have been colonized by fungi which seem to be responsible
for the biofilm formation in the painting there seems to be
a strong relationship between the most deteriorated areas with
structural damage such as cracking and detachment of the paint
layer and a higher microbial contamination. The fumigation using
different nano materials especially the most successful material
such as nano titanium dioxide which must be mixed with calcium
hydroxide, or with nano fillers silica and nano calcium carbonate
to prevent any growth of microorganisms
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