Warning: include_once(../article_type.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/gjaa/GJAA.MS.ID.555712.php on line 136
Warning: include_once(): Failed opening '../article_type.php' for inclusion (include_path='.:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/pear:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/php') in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/gjaa/GJAA.MS.ID.555712.php on line 136
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Risky Sexual Behavior among Students of Teachers Education College, in Mettu Town, South West Ethiopia
Yomiyu Temesgen¹, Tsegaye Berkessa² and Zakir Abdu3
1Mettu Health Science College, Mettu, Ethiopia
2 Research, community service and collaboration vice president, Mettu University, Ethiopia.
3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Mettu University, Ethiopia
Submission: April 27, 2018; Published: September 24, 2018
*Corresponding author: Zakir Abdu, Research, community service and collaboration vice president, Mettu University, Ethiopia.
How to cite this article: Yomiyu T, Tsegaye B, Zakir A. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Risky Sexual Behavior among Students of Teachers
Education College, in Mettu Town, South West Ethiopia. Glob J Arch & Anthropol. 2018; 7(3): 555712. DOI: 10.19080/GJAA.2018.07.555712
Background: Sexual behavior is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Globally, young people aged 15-24 years are at the forefront of the epidemic and among the most vulnerable groups for risky sexual behavior that account for an estimated 45% of new HIV infection.
Objective:To assess the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among students of Teachers Education Colleges, in Mettu Town, South West Ethiopia, 2018.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 478 randomly selected students in Teachers Education College in mettu town, South waste Ethiopia from April to May 2018, using a Self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participant from each department. Data were entered Epi-data version 3.1 then exported to SPSS version 20. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out. Variables with P-values< 0.25 in binary logistic regression was selected as a candidate for multiple logistic regressions to determine independent determinants of risky sexual behavior. Odds ratio was calculated with 95 % CI to show strength of association and P-value < 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance.
Result:A total 444 students participated in the study making the response rate 93%. Two hundred ninty four (66.6%) students reported to have ever had sexual activity. The overall prevalence of risky sexual behavior in this study was 46.6% with [95% CI, (41.9 -51.6)]. In this study ; sex (male) [AOR=2.578; 95% CI: (1.648, 4.033)], study year(year three) [AOR= 2.182; 95% CI: (1.214, 3.921)], Peer pressure [AOR= 3.616; 95% CI: (1.591, 8.484)], were the independent predictors for risky sexual behavior.
Conclusion and Recommendations: The study indicated that a significant segment of risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among Teachers Education college in mettu twon. which were being male, peer pressure and year of study were pridectors factors.Therefore, the needs of youth reproductive health in the college through Governmental and non-governmental organizations working on SRH services should work on better access to information, education and communication on SRH issues to the College students.
Keywords: Risky; Sexual behavior and Associated factors; Mettu Teachers Education College
Abbrevations: COR: Crude Odds Ratio; AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval; STIs: Sexually Transmitted Infections; RSB: Risky Sexual Behaviors; SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Sciences
Sexual behavior is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. In adolescents and young people risky sexual behavior has been recognized as an important health, social and demographic concern in the developing world. It is a priority public health concern because of the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among this age group . Risky sexual behavior is defined as an individual’s conduct that increases the susceptibility of the person to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, unwanted pregnancy
and psychological distress. According to published research, risky sexual behaviors may present as having unprotected sex (without or inconsistently using a condom), having multiple sexual partners, having sex under the influence of stimulant substances, or having sex immediately after watching pornographic or early sexual debut before 18 years .
Globally, young people aged 15-24 years are at the forefront of the epidemic and among the most vulnerable groups for risky sexual behavior that account for an estimated 45% of new HIV infection . Report from USA showed that 46% of in school
youths had ever had sexual intercourse and 34% had sexual
intercourse during the previous three months. From this, 39%
did not use condom last time they had sex and 77% did not use
any birth control to prevent pregnancy the last time they had sex
with their opposite sex. About 14% had sex with four or more
people during their life time .
Study conducted among University students of South Africa
and Uganda also showed high rate of multiple sexual partners. It
is assumed that university and college students are fully aware
of HIV risks and preventive mechanisms; how-ever, evidence
showed that they are usually engaged in higher in risky sexual
behavior . The majority of adolescent and youth sexual health
problems can occur due to different environmental factors [5-7].
Practicing sex with multiple partners, inconsistent condom uses
and commencing sex with female commercial sex workers, which
were highly risky sexual behaviors for HIV infection transmission
among study participants, were commonly practiced [8,9].
In Ethiopia, youth people (aged 15–24) represented one
of the country’s largest groups, comprising about 35% of the
population and college students are in this age category and are
exposed to risky sexual behaviors such as unprotected sexual
intercourse leading to HIV, other STIs and unwanted pregnancies
. They are more vulnerable to wider sexual and reproductive
health problems due to new environment with poor protection,
age and the need to explore life, peer pressure and absence of
proactive programs and Living independently away from home
was considered important factors because it facilitated students
to have sex with many different partners without fear of social
censure from peers or community members .
Youth are at high danger of risky sexual behaviors and
reproductive health problems. But these problems are not
considered health priorities because more often young people
considered having lower morbidity and the youth have limited
access to reproductive health services and exposed to risky
sexual behavior . Even though youth reproductive health
initiatives programs are being implemented at the national level
including in learning institutions .
However, risky sexual behaviors remain a significant
problem predisposing for STIs and HIV infection. The
Ethiopian government has developed and implemented
various strategies to promote sexual and reproductive health.
Despite these interventions, different studies in the country
showed a high prevalence of risky sexual behavior . However
there are limited information on risky sexual behavior in
the study area. Currently, Teachers education colleges do not
have accommodations for their students unlike governmental
universities. Most of the students come from rural areas and are
living in the rented houses away from their supervising families
and this could open a door for having risky sexual behavior
among college students.
Among U.S. high school students surveyed in 2013, from
among those who ever had sexual intercourse, 40.9 % did not
use condom the last time they had sex. A study conducted on high
school students of China among sexually active adolescents, 42.4
% had unprotected sexual intercourse [1,6]. Different findings
in different area reports magnitude of risky sexual behavior in
the range of 21.6% to 42.1% as measured by having multiple
sexual experience [7,8]. According to EDHS 2011, among young
men who had one or more partners in the past year, only 47 %
reported using condom in their most recent sexual intercourse
. The prevalence of multiple sexual partners among Tanzanian
college students was 42%; males were two times more likely to
have multiple sexual partners compared to females .
In most sub-Saharan African countries, the age of first
sex which happens before marriage is less than 18 years. For
example, 19% of Rwandese, 37% of Senegalese, 41% of Ghanaian,
49% of Ethiopian, 62% of Democratic republic Congolaise,64%
of Ugandan, 79% of Mozambique and 80%of Liberian women
aged between 20-24 had sex before 18 years . According to
the 2013 UNAIDS report, the HIV prevalence among sex workers
is 12 times greater than among the general population . In
a meta-analysis study conducted on 26 developing countries
including Ethiopia, across countries, male youth under 20 years
were about 8 times more likely than were male youth aged 20-24
years to have had higher-risk sex in the last 12 months (95% CI:
A study conducted on school adolescents in Addis Ababa
confirmed that students who perceived their peers are involved
in sexual relationships were eleven times more likely to risky
sexual behavior compared to those who did not have this
perception [AOR = 11.68 (95%CI: 8.76 - 15.58)] . According
to a study among middle and high school students of Colombia,
18.4 % reported sexual intercourse after alcohol consumption,
5.8 % after illegal drugs consumption . A study conducted
on exposure to sexually explicit websites and adolescent sexual
attitudes and behaviors revealed that adolescent males indicated
that their exposure to explicit sex material put their lives at risk
of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including
HIV/AIDS because they engaged in unsafe sexual practices as a
result of impulsivity and conformity .
An Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted
from April1 to May. 2018. The study was conducted in Teachers
Education College Students, in Mettu Town, Illu-Ababor Zone,
and located to the south Waste Ethiopia. Mettu is located 600km
in the south western of Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia
the total population of college was 5,539 students which from
the register office, 2018. From these 2,253 students are female
and 3,287 are male. Total number of regular students are 1663,
among these males are 943 and females are 721. Randomly
selected regular students from each departments of Teachers
Education College. The sample size was determined using single
population proportion formula and determined using 95%
level of significance and at 4% margin of error considering. The
overall pooled prevalence of risky sexual behavior in Ethiopia was 42.8% (9) and 10% non-response was considered to
determine the final sample size.
ni = Initial sample size
p = the overall pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice in
Ethiopia was 42.8%.
d = margin of error (0.04)
But the source population (N) is <10,000; the sample size
was modified using the correction formula. = nf = 43
Where, nf: Final sample size
ni: Initial sample size
N: Total population
Add 10% for non-respondents=10% of sample size+ sample
Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire
by local language Afan Oromo. Standardized questionnaire
adapted and modified from different literature reviews
Concerning risky sexual behaviors (RSB), participants were
asked  if they ever had sexual intercourse (yes/no),  how
many sexual partners they have had in the last 12 months (1
or more than 1)  how frequent they used condom (always
or irregularly/never), Those who have more than one sexual
partner or those do not use condom regularly were taken to have
risky sexual behaviors.
In the context of this study, risky sexual behavior refers to
if Adolescent/Youth are practicing at least one of the following
problematic sexual behaviors: Having more than one sexual
partner or inconsistently/incorrectly condom use.
The collected data was cleaned, edited, coded and entered
Epi-Data version 3.1 then exported to Statistical package for
social sciences (SPSS) version 20. The data was also explored
again for inconsistencies and missing values. After categorizing
and defining variables Frequencies and cross tabulations was
used to summarize descriptive statistics. Adjusted odds Ratio
was estimated with 95% CI to show strength of association
and P-value < 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance.
Goodness of fit of the final model was checked using Homer
Lemeshow test of goodness of fit considering good fit at P-value
≥0.05(0.086), omnibus likelihood test <0.05(0.000). The results
were presented in text, figures and tables.
Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical review
committee of Mettu University (MeU) School of Post-Graduate
Studies. Official letter of cooperation was written to Mettu
Teachers Education College. Consent was obtained from those
who was meet the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate.
Also, affirmation that they were free to withdraw consent and
discontinue participation without any form of prejudices was
made. Confidentiality of information and privacy of participants
was assured for all the information provided, to preserve the
confidentiality the data was not exposed to the third party
except the principal investigator and advisor.
A total of 478 students participated, four hundred forty-four
respondents completed questionnaires with full information
and those questionnaires with inconsistent and incomplete
response were excluded from the analysis which make response
rate 93%. More than half (55.0%) of respondents were males.
The mean (+SD) age of respondents was 20.25(±1.74) years.
From the four hundred forty-four, two hundred eighty-four
(64%) of them were in the age between (20-24) years, four
hundred twenty-three (95.3%) were Oromo in ethnicity and two
hundred fifteen (48.4%) were protestant in religion. From the
study participants, three hundred one (67.8%) reported living
with friends in rented house (Table1).
Among the study participants 294 ((66.2%), two hundred
twenty-six (76.8%) male and sixty-eight (23.2%) female))
students were sexually active. Majority of respondents two
hundred seventy-five three (93.5%) reported to engage in
sexual activity with their boy or girlfriend and eleven (3.7%)
participants had reported to have sex with commercial sex
workers. Regarding number sexual partners in the last 12
months of the respondents’ majority of respondents 189 (64.3%)
of participants reported they have had one sexual partner (Table
The factors that were significantly associated with risky
sexual behaviors are includes: sex (male), Age between (20-24
and Age (>24), previous home residence, peer pressure, and
drinking alcohol, year of study2 and year of study 3, night club,
current living condition Were significantly associated with the
risky sexual behavior (Table 3).
Sex (male), Year of study  and peer pressure were found
to be significant associated factor for risky sexual behavior. male
was more than two and half times more likely to ever Risky
sexual behavior as compared to female [AOR=2.578; 95% CI:
(1.648,4.033)]. Those respondents who were peer pressure
were more than three times more likely to Risky sexual behavior
as compared to non-peer pressure [AOR= 3.616; 95% CI:
(1.591,8.484)]. Those respondents who were three years more
than two times more likely to Risky sexual behavior as compared
to year one [AOR= 2.182; 95% CI: (1.214, 3.921)].
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of
risky sexual behavior and associated factors among Mettu
Teachers Education College of students. The overall prevalence
of risky sexual behavior in this study was 46.6% with [95% CI,
(41.9 -51.6)]. This finding is in line with study among Debre
Marko’s university students (44.7%)  and study among Bihar
Dar private colleges (42.3%) . But it is higher than studies
conducted in other universities in Ethiopia; in Bahirdar 36.4 %
, among Haramaya University (33.5%)  and in Gondar
and Bahirdar Universities jointly (16.5%) . This could be because
of college students are not living in a campus rather most
are living in a rented house away from their supervising families
and which could lead students initiate substance use and engage
in risky sexual behavior. The other reason for this high disparity
could be difference in college-based risk education and information
provision to students. In addition, there may be also social
and cultural differences as well as the difference in the settings
of the cities such as possessing recreational areas.
However; It is far less than other studies in Africa and other
parts of the world; in Enugu Nigeria it was reported to be 76.8 %,
. Among undergraduates’ students of Muhimbili and Dares
Salaam Universities in Tanzania it was reported to be 70.4 %
 and among students of Ugandan University (60.3%) .
This difference may be attributable to the social and cultural
differences and unpredictability behaviors of sexual behaviors
of youth. In this study, peer pressure was associated with
risky sexual behavior. Respondents who had experienced peer
pressure to have sex were more than three times more likely to
risky sexual behavior than their counterpart [AOR= 3.616; 95%
CI: (1.591, 8.484)]. This finding is in line with studies conducted
in school-youth of West Gojam zone , among high school in
Bahir Dar town , and Studies in South Africa . This could
be due to youth spend most of their time with their peers so that
peers are most influential socializing agent for sexuality among
youth. Besides youth need attention, and recognition with peers
so that they are liable to behave in a manner intimate friend
In this study, year of study was independently associated
with risky sexual behavior. Respondents who were year three
were found to be more than two times more likely to engage
in risky sexual behavior when compared with year one [AOR=
2.182; 95% CI: (1.214, 3.921)]. This finding is in line with study
among Madawalabu University, Fourth- and third-year students
were nearly three times and two times more likely to ever have
risky sexual behavior as compared to first year students .
This justifies that as year of study increases the risk of having
risky sexual behavior also increases; this might be because of
alcohol use, peer pressure, and increased level of extroversion
. A qualitative study in Jimma University asserted that most
students focus on their academic performance for first year
and tend to engage in love, sexual activity and have risky sexual
behavior after assuring their academic survival .
In this study sex of respondents was associated with risky
sexual behavior. The findings of this study revealed that male
respondents were more than two and half times more likely to
have risky sexual behavior than females [AOR=2.578; 95% CI:
(1.648, 4.033)]. This finding is in line with Tanzanian college
students where males were two times more likely to have risky
sexual behavior . And this finding is consistent with finding
from Haramaya University which revealed that being male
students is significantly associated with risky sexual behavior.
The odds of performing risky sex among males were two times
higher than that of females . This might be due to several
factors like high level of personal freedom and romantic videos
(pornography) which offers an opportunity for high level of
sexual networking. The other reason could be substance use
such as chat and alcohol were more common in males.
The behavioral outcomes were based on self-reported
information, which was subject to reporting errors and bias. The
study is limited to college students so that the result cannot be
generalized to the out of college youth in the town.
A considerable proportion of students in the college practice
risk sexual behavior which endangers their future, which
was 46.6% with [95% CI, (41.9-51.6)]. Among the associated
factors, variables such as sex (male), having sex due to peer
pressure, and year of study, among college students were found
statistically significant with risky sexual behavior. This implies
the need for concerted effort to alleviate the problem. When
the practice of risk sexual behavior among college students is
qualitatively explored, students perceived that having sex is a
sign of modernization.
This study suggests that mettu Teachers Education College
a. Peers have greater influence on the positive and
negative behavior of their friends. In order to protect youth from
risky sexual behavior, college focus on promoting peer educators
and the way of peer discussion.
b. College should inform their students, especially
third year students, about the risky sexual behavior and its
c. Intervention consider males because the problems
of high-risk sexual activity were reported mostly among male
d. Governmental and non-governmental organizations
working on SRH services should work on better access to
information, education and communication on SRH issues to the
f. Furthermore, this study suggests that there is a need
of further investigation or researches using qualitative studies
on longitudinal base or triangulated quantitative research to
explore and identified the associated factors very well, and
should address sociocultural, attitude of youth among college