1Department of Physics, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan
2QAED Kot Addu, Pakistan
3Department of Computer Science, IIU Islamabad, Pakistan
4Department of Environmental sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
Submission: July 19, 2019;Published: September 18, 2019
*Corresponding author: Qaisar Abbas, Department of Physics, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus 54000, Pakistan
How to cite this article: Qaisar Abbas, Qaiser Atta, Aqsa Hashmi, Muhammad Rafique, Faisal Munir, Aroosah Tabassum. A Brief Introduction to Natural Fibers and
Preparation of Lignocelluloses for
Different Applications. Curr Trends Fashion Technol Textile Eng. 2019; 5(2): 555660.
In this research we discussed the brief introduction of natural fibers and different plants were collected and by chemical method lignocelluloses sheet was fabricated which further can be used for many different applications such as in textile industry also it can be used with nanomaterials for flexible energy devices. Lignocellulosic fibers were attained by mechanical separation from monochoria vaginalis and Typha Angustifolia plants, and then after drying of fibers, fibers sheet fabricated by bleaching of fiber with different concentration, the lignocellulose fiber sheets were so flexible that can twist into any geometrical shape and can cut with the help of scissor. That can help to prepare many flexible devices such as wearable energy devices.
“Fibers are the hair like materials, like the piece of thread. There are two kinds of fibers: Natural Fibers, which consists of plant and Self-made fibers: which consists of synthetic fibers and regenerated fibers [1, 2]. Plant fibers are light weight, flexible and having good mechanical properties . Hence natural fibers are very useful in many applications. The type of fibers depends upon the sources. It has been noted that fibers having different origin had different mechanical, rigidity, flexibility and biodegradable properties [4-6]. The length of natural fiber is approximately 1μm -50μm and diameter of the fiber is the order of 10nm-50nm nanofibers exist in cell wall [7,8]. The natural fibers are made up of many cell walls. If we remove these cell walls one by one, we will see that it contains nano cellulose fibers in it. These nano fibers add up the strength of the fiber. The main part of natural fiber or plant fibers is cellulose wrapped around nano and micro cellulose which are stick together by lignin which totally made up lignocellulose” . The pulp and paper industry processes large quantities of lignocelluloses biomass in every year [10-22]. Historically, plants have found some uses in pulp and paper industry, but these fibers have been confined to areas such as modifications of raw starch fibers [23-35]. Over
the years, the number of possible applications of plant fibers in pulp and paper industry has increased steadily [36-39]. The pulp and paper industry processes large quantities of lignocelluloses biomass in every year. Historically, plants have found some uses in pulp and paper industry, but these fibers have been confined to areas such as modifications of raw starch fibers .
Over the years, the number of possible applications of plant fibers in pulp and paper industry has increased steadily [36-39]. Lignocellulose are widely being used in in pulp and paper industries [40,41]. Lignocelluloses biomass in the form of plant fuel, has a very long history as a source of energy . Industrial biomass composed on lignocelluloses waste, which is renewable, inexpensive, abundant and provides a natural resource for large-scale and cost-effective bio-energy collection [43-45]. Lignocellulose also have application in Biofuels and Bioethanol [46-48] Vehicle industry around the world used the lignocellulose fiber-based composites parts in the vehicles e.g. foot mats interior, rugs etc. [49-51]. Many applications have been reported for use of Lignocellulose application in automobiles . Now a day’s natural/nano lignocellulose fiber composites are using in the construction of the buildings [53,54]. A large quantity of lignocelluloses plant wastes is generated worldwide
from different sources leading to environmental issues. By
use of these lignocelluloses wastes in making cement-bonded
construction materials, we can reduce the magnitude of different
problems [55-57]. Lignocellulose fibers are used as a composite
form to be mixed with rubber, fibers provide good strength to
them [25,53,58-62]. It adds up strength and stiffness when mix
with other materials [9,63-67]. Lignocellulose fibers are also
used to avoid erosion of soil and for the protection of the seeds
. Lignocellulose fibers are also used to avoid erosion of soil
and for the protection of the seeds” .
Lignocellulose application in soil conservation materials are
also reported [68,69].“Bacterial lignocellulose fiber has found
many applications in the biomedical field as tissue engineering
materials due to their good biocompatibility, mechanical
properties similar to those of hard and soft tissue and easy
fabrication into a variety of shapes with adjustable interconnected
porosity [70-72]. Lignocellulose Paper-based supercapacitors, a
very interesting and novel group of flexible and environmentally
friendly energy storage devices, are attracting a great attention
from the industry. Lignocellulose fibers with a unique porous
bulk structure and absorptive surface properties enable the
paper-based energy storage devices with a reasonably good
conductivity performance at a very low cost” .
“In this regard the first plant Typha Angustifolia (cat-tail)
was chosen as plant source for the preparation and analysis
of lignocellulose nanofibers. Typha Angustifolia (cat-tail) was
collected Southern Punjab District Muzaffargarh Pakistan. Only
leaves cut into lengths were used. The outer skin of the bark was
peeled from the leaves by hand and used for fiber extraction.
Samples were air-dried and stored at room temperature. The
second plant which we selected for our research work was
monochoria vaginalis (water hyacinth) commonly known as
singhara in native Lahore. The reason behind this selection was
that it is a self-grown plant. There is no need to plant it and
to spend money and our energy on it. It is easily available and
grow in any water populated area for example a pound most
of contaminated water. We select this plant for our research
work because monochoria vaginalis (MV) is softer for sheet
preparation than the first plant” (Figure 2). Then extract the
fibers from its stems with scissor. The fibers are in wet form.
Then these fibers were dried for 3 days for further processes
“1.0 g of Raw Monochoria Vaginalis (MV)lignocellulose
fibers were cut into small pieces. Fibers were first dispersed
in 40% NaOCl solution (150 mL). Then bleached fibers were
treated at room temperature for 2 hours under constant stirring
(500rpm). After that, we grind the solution in mortar and pestle
for 30minutes (Figure 4). We again do the stirring process for
30minutes. Again, grind the solution for 20minutes in mortar
and pestle. Now the slurry solution was filtered on filter paper
(90mm-d) in a Buchner funnel connected to a suction flask and
vacuum as shown in diagram” (Figure 5).
The lignocelluloses are extracted from natural occurring
plants which is most important for the cost factor. It can be used
in different applications at lowest cost. The extracted fibers
can be used in energy sectors, textile, and paper industry etc.
Moreover, the preparation method is also easy, and no special
labs are required via simple chemical process lignocelluloses can
be prepared having less investment on preparation, so these are
interesting fibers for further research.
Rodrigues PC, Alvaro Mathias, Luiz Ramos, Paulo Roberto Janissek, Paulo Cesar Almei, et al. (2002) Polyaniline/lignin blends: FTIR, MEV and electrochemical characterization. European Polymer Journal 38(11): 2213-2217.