*Corresponding author:Fahad Halim, Department of Textile Engineering, World University of Bangladesh, India
How to cite this article: Fahad Halim, Iftay Khairul Alam, Tahmina Akhter. Regression Analysis of the Effects of Yarn Counts, Stitch Lengths on Depth of
Stripes of Different Single Jersey Fabrics. Curr Trends Fashion Technol Textile Eng. 2019; 5(2): 555657. DOI: 10.19080/CTFTTE.2018.04.555657
Fabric can be made attractive by means of ornamentation and designing. Stripe is one means by which attractive fabric can be produced which added extra values of that product. This research was to investigate the effects of yarn counts, Knit structures and Stitch Lengths on the depth of stripes. All the samples were made with 100% cotton dyed yarns. The work was done in three sections. In the first section, using a stitch length 2.8mm, three Single Jersey Plain structures were produced using different yarn counts which were 30 Ne, 28 Ne, and 26 Ne. In the second section, Single Jersey Plain, Single Lacoste, Polo Pique, and Double Lacoste structures were produced with 26 Ne yarn at stitch length 2.8mm. In the final section, four Single Jersey Plain structures were produced by varying stitch length 2.70 mm, 2.80 mm, 2.90 mm and 3.0 mm using the same yarn count which was 30 Ne. After conditioning, Depth of stripes (DOS) were measured, data were presented in tables and graphical representations were shown. It was found that little changes in DOS were observed with decreasing of yarn count in dry relaxed state but remarkable changes in DOS were observed after washing and wet relaxation. DOS for 30 Ne, 28 Ne, and 26 Ne were found 13.25 mm, 13.5 mm and 14.2 mm respectively. In the second section, the highest depth of stripe was found in Single Jersey Plain structure and lowest in Double Lacoste structure. Depths of stripes of other structures lie in between them. Effects of stitch lengths were also studied here. Effects of four different stitch lengths were shown in Single Jersey Plain structures. Depth of stripes in a dry relaxed state for 2.70 mm, 2.80 mm, 2.90 mm and 3.00 mm were found 11.1 mm, 13.35 mm, 13.85 mm and 14.30 mm respectively. Depths of stripes in wet relaxed state were reduced in all samples due to shrinkage.
Keywords: Regression analysis; yarn counts; Stitch lengths; Stripes; Single Jersey Fabrics; Knit structures; knitting; warp knits; knit loops; tuck loops; woven fabrics; miss loops; wrap reel; Single Lacoste; Polo Pique
The art of knitting has been rapidly progressing day by day. Unlike woven fabrics, knitted fabrics are popular for their shape fitting properties; soften handle, bulker nature and high extension at low tension. The application of knitting was popular by the term hose to produce a complete covering of the legs and since then the word hosiery is conveniently used for a series of articles on stockings, socks, knitted legs coverings, and even to general circular knitted goods . Different types of knitted fabric may be produced by intermeshing different types of loops such as knit, tuck and miss loops. Along with knit loops, tuck loops are used to produce different types of commercial and popular knit
ted structures. The commercial design of knitted garments is a process that shares many important characteristics with other types of aesthetic design and engineering . Yarn-dyed knit
fabric is one of exclusive fabric highly recommended by Buyer. In knitwear section yarn dyed fabric is very popular and expensive rather than regular solid fabric. For years, knitting has been considered more an art than a science. Many attempts have been made over the past century quantify the characteristics of knitted fabrics . Knit fabrics provide comfortable wear to almost any style of garment. Most of the knitted fabric is used to produce baby wear without restricting movement
While many variations of knit fabrics exist such that used for hosiery, only two types of knit fabric exist-weft and warp knits. From these two types of knit fabrics come various sub-types. The key to understanding a knitted structure lies within its basic element, the single knitted loop. The length of yarn knitted into a single loop will determine such overall fabric qualities as hand, comfort, weight, extensibility, finished size, cover factor, and most
importantly, fabric dimensional stability . In this paper, we
have tried was made to develop various feeder stripe single jersey
structures on single jersey circular knitting machine and study on
the effects of yarn counts, knit structures and stitch lengths on the
depth of stripe.
In this project work, three different counts of seven colors
were used to produce samples. Yarns were collected from knitting
laboratory. Count of each and every cone was tested by using wrap
reel and balance. Obtained data were presented in (Tables 1-3)
of annexure. Before knitting, machine servicing was done properly,
all the setting points were checked, and yarn tension was adjusted.
First, Single Jersey Plain fabrics were produced with three
different counts at the VDQ 15.65 cm. Course length and stitch
length were measured. The stitch length was found 2.80 mm. Data
of course length and stitch length were presented in (Table 4)
of annexure. Then came arrangements and needle set out were
changed for other samples. Single Jersey Plain, Single Lacoste,
Polo Pique, and Double Lacoste structures were produced with 26
Ne yarn at stitch length 2.80 mm. Last of all, four different samples
were knitted with 30 Ne yarn at four different stitch lengths such
as 2.70 mm, 2.80 mm, 2.90 mm and 3.00 mm. Detail parameters
were given in (Table 4). All the samples were then left lying on a
smooth flat surface for 24 hours for dry relaxation. After relaxation,
the depth of stripe and CPI for each sample were measured.
Then hot wash was given to all samples by using AHIBA IR machine
at 60° C for 10 min. Samples were then dried. After drying
and conditioning, depth of stripe and CPI were measured
The fabric was prepared in such a manner that the lengths of
yarn forming complete knitted courses can be pulled out easily.
All the samples for measuring stitch length (SL) were in tubular
form. Samples were cut across the wales line by a scissor. The yarn
clamp spring was set into HATRA tester at an approximate length,
according to the indicator of the Board of HATRA. One end of the
yarn of a course of a sample was attached to the clamp. Then according
to the direction, the yarn was guided through pulleys by
pulling out from the sample. At the end of the yarn, a weight was
attached for giving appropriate tension in yarn. The course length
(CL) of the samples were then measured from the scale of HATRA.
Stitch length was calculated by using the following formula. The
total no. of needles was 744.
Eleven different types of samples were produced for the
depth of stripe (DOS) measurement following testing standard: B.
S. 5441; 1977. After conditioning for several hours, the samples
were then laid on a large flat table for DOS measurement. Twenty
reading were taken from each sample .
Test samples were laid on a flat horizontal surface for removing
wrinkles without stretching. Courses per inch (CPI) were measured
using a counting glass following testing standard: B. S. 1051;
1981. For the measurement of CPI of Single Jersey Plain fabrics,
the edge of the counting glass was positioned either parallel to or,
perpendicular to the wale line. Courses were counted parallel to
the wale line. For cross tuck constructions, courses per inch were
measured by counting the courses of an inch. Ten measurements
for each sample were made.
In both relaxed states, it was evident that maximum depth of
stripe (DOS) was found in Single Jersey Plain fabric knitted with
26 Ne and lowest DOS was observed in SJP knitted with 30 Ne. In
dry relaxed state, variation in DOS for different yarn counts was
observed but its values were very low (Figure 1). In the wet relaxed
state, the effects of yarn count in DOS were clearer. Depth of
stripe in dry relaxed for 30Ne, 28 Ne and 26 Ne were found 13.25
mm, 14.1 mm and 14.85 mm respectively but in wet relaxed state,
the values were reduced due to shrinkage5 and they were 12.7
mm, 13.5 mm and 14.2 mm respectively (Figure 2). In dry relaxed
state, highest stripe depth was found in Single Jersey Plain structures,
and then, Single Lacoste, Polo Pique and Double Lacoste respectively.
The same sequence was observed in wet relaxed state.
The highest value of depth of stripe was observed in Single Jersey
Plain fabric and its values were before wash 12.33 mm and after
wash 11.30 mm. The lowest values of DOS were found in Double
Lacoste structures and its value were before wash 7.85 mm and
after wash 6.80 mm. Depth of stripe of other structures lie in between
them. Depth of stripes of cross tuck structures such a Single
Lacoste, Double Lacoste and Polo Pique were lower than Single
Jersey Plain structures where all the stitches were knit stitch. It
has been observed that the structures having only knit stitches
gave the higher depth of stripe and the structures having tuck
stitches gave the lower depth of stripe. The reasons behind this
behavior are in knit stitch, the complete loop configurations are
available but, in tuck stitches, the loop length is shortened, as Tuck
loops reduce fabric length and length-wise elasticity, due to the
higher yarn tension on the tuck and held loops causes them to rob
yarn from adjacent knitted loops (Figure 3).
In dry relaxed state, it was observed that, depth of stripe
(DOS) was increased with the increase of stitch length [6,7]. Highest
depth was observed in sample 11 knitted with stitch length
3.00 mm, and lowest DOS was found in Sample 9 which was produced
with stitch length 2.70 mm. Highest DOS was observed in
the structure produced with stitch length 3.00 mm and its values
were before wash 14.30 mm and after wash 13.95 mm. Lowest
DOS was observed in the structure produced with stitch length
2.70 mm and its values were before wash 11.1 mm and after wash
10.9 mm. In dry relaxed state, there was no clear trend in DOS
variations was observed but in wet relaxed state, trend in DOS
variations was found. About 1.05 mm DOS were increased by increasing
stitch length 0.10 mm. The reason behind this is increasing
stitch length increases the loop length which in turn increases
the depth of stripes [8,9].
Regression analysis is the most common statistical method
for estimation of the relationship between a dependent variable
and one or more independent variables [10,11]. This method has
the advantage of simplicity in describing the quantitative relationship
between textile material properties. Therefore, the multiple
regression analysis method was selected for establishing the relationships
between fibre and yarn properties. At the beginning,
the types of relationship between selected counts, stitch length
(SL) as independent variables and depth of stripe before and after
wash as dependent variables were checked individually by using
curve estimation and correlation analysis. Statistical analysis indicated
that there was a nearly linear relationship between them.
Hence, the linear multiple regression analysis method was chosen
for this study [12,13]. Statistical analyses were performed using
SPSS 11.0.1 software. From the linear regression formula, it is evident
that, the predicted values for DOS of counts 26, 28, 30 Ne
not showed variation more than 5%. This also same for predicted
values of stitch lengths which shows that the regression formula is
accurate and can be used to predict the values during manufacturing
knitted fabrics for estimation of DOS (Tables 5-7).
In this paper an approach was taken to determine the stripe
depth in different parameters. The linear regression analysis
formula and its changes in different parameters can help to make
an idea about the result while producing horizontal striped weft
knitted fabric commercially. It was observed that values of depth
of stripes were changed due to changing the yarn counts, knit
structures and stitch lengths. Highest depth of stripe was found
in single jersey plain structures and lowest in Double Lacoste at
constant yarn count and stitch length. Courser yarns give higher
depth of stripe of a knit fabric [14,15]. It was also seen that depth
of stripe increases by increasing stitch length. Considering all the
variables, it can say that highest depth of stripe can be produced
in Single Jersey Plain knitted with coarsest yarn at largest stitch
length. In this work, the structures were produced on small diameter machine . Yet remarkable variation in depth of stripe
was observed. If the structures are produced in a large diameter
machine which is commercially available, the depth of stripe
variation will be more. Knitters can take help in selecting proper
yarn count and stitch length for a depth of stripe of a structure
using linear regression formula.
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