Pharmacognostic Study, Traditional
Medicinal Uses, And Pharmacological Activities
of Crepidium Amplectens
Vijay Nigam*, Saurabh Dubey, Shivam Chaurasia, and Kanchan Agarwal
Daksh Institute of Pharmaceutical Science (DIPS), Chhatarpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
Submission: May 15, 2023; Published: May 26, 2023
*Corresponding author: Vijay Nigam, Daksh Institute of Pharmaceutical Science (DIPS), Chhatarpur, Madhya Pradesh, India, Email id: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Vijay N, Saurabh D, Shivam C, Kanchan A. Pharmacognostic Study, Traditional Medicinal Uses, And Pharmacological Activities of Crepidium Amplectens . Ann Rev Resear. 2023; 9(2): 555759. DOI: 10.19080/ARR.2023.09.555759
Crepidium amplectens is one of nature’s most extravagant flowering plants i.e. It is grown primarily at a height of more than 1500fts in India and different parts of the world. It has been used in many parts of the world in traditional healing systems as well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since ancient times. It belongs to the largest family of plant kingdom i.e., Orchidaceae. Yet no studies have been done regarding its medicinal properties and traditional uses. Here brief research is carried out on its phytochemical profile and pharmacology to rule out its medicinal properties. Microscopy of leaf shows starch grains, stone cells, fibers, vessels are important anatomical characteristics of organized drugs. Plant shows aphrodisiac, haemostatic, anti-diarrheal, styptic, anti dysenteric, febrifuge, cooling and tonic. It faces the extreme danger of extinction due to over-exploitation and habitat loss.
Keywords: Medicinal Herbs; Styptic; Aphrodisiac; Haemostatic; Anti-Diarrheal; Anti Dysenteric; Febrifuge
Ayurveda is eternal and its tradition is everlasting. It continues to flow from ancient times. The history of Ayurvedic literature being associated with Brahma and other devtas is very ancient, dignified and enormous. Dhanvantri the lord described that Ayurveda is the science of life. It is a mirror of life (beneficial, non-beneficial, happy and unhappy factors of life). The main purpose of Ayurveda is to protect the health of a healthy person and to mitigate the disorders of a patient. The recognition of Charaka, Susuruta and other Samhitas, in their own way, continues from ancient times. The principles of health protection described in Ayurveda, tools for disease free life, good conduct and noble behavior and other issues described lucidly are important in all their perspectives. The rhizomes are elongated (thus, the plants are well-spaced, e.g., C. distans (Schltr.) Szlach.) or abbreviated (plants clustered, e.g., C. resupinatum (G. Forst.) Szlach.) and are sometimes branched. Pseudobulbs are erect, elongate, fusiform, few are noded, usually completely covered by leaf bases and basal scales, and arise from the basal nodes of the previous pseudobulb, or from the tip of the rhizome. The leaves are usually 3–6 in number (rarely 2; rarely up to 10), spirally arranged, and clustered at the apical part of the shoot. The leaf-sheath and petiole are well-developed. The leaf-blade is always plicate and membranous; and often at least slightly oblique, ovate to lanceolate, or elliptic to oblong. The leaves of the plant are more or less attenuate, acute at the apex, basally cordate, rounded, or more rarely cuneate; and 1, 3, 5, or 7-veined. The flowers are small to medium-sized (mostly ca. 0.5 cm, occasionally up to 2.3 cm in diameter—e.g., C. megalanthum (Schltr.) Szlach.) [1-20].
Literature research is conducted using different available literature on the drug, such as classical text of Ayurveda and other compendium. Botanical & medicinal Data is also collected from various books, magazines, journals, periodicals and papers published in the e-journal etc. The review was conducted with an interactive strategy of combining the keywords Astavarga, Ayurveda, Jivaniya, Bramahniya, Nighantu, Samhita etc.
Considering the availability of the plant, the study is conducted in different areas of Uttarakhand, especially Dehradone. Mussoorie, popularly known as the “Queen of Hills” is a charming hill station situated at an altitude of 2003 mts (+6500 FT) above sea-level in the Garhwal hills of Uttarakhand.
The samples of plant materials were identified with the
help of standard local flora. Preliminary identification was
done by examining fresh plants procured by the local villagers.
The corresponding raw materials were collected, and the
morphological characters were compared with the fresh plants
and vernacular names.
Species of Crepidium are found in tropical countries including
China, the Indian subcontinent All around the world it is found in
Pakistan, Bhutan, and Tibet between 1500-3100 mts elevation. In
India found in Central and Eastern Himalaya from Uttarakhand
to Assam and Sikkim up to an altitude of 3300 mts in alpine
grassland, grassy hill sides, damp gullies and stony slopes.
Himachal Pradesh- Shimla, Glen fall, Baluganj, Elysium Hill, on
the way to Rani Forest, on the way from Khajiyar to Chamba, Chail,
Hattu peak and Narkanda. Uttarakhand-Dehradun-Camelback
Road, on Mussoorie bypass road, above Barlowgunj in Chakrata,
Jaunsar Tehri (Magra); Pauri-Pode khal; Chamoli-Nagnath,
Ukhimath, Gopeshwar; Pithoragarh-Sarju Valley, Bernath,
Thalkedar; Nainital-Bhawali, Ramgarh; Almora-Between Ranikhet
and Chaubatiya (Figure 1).
The stem is underground, spreading, fibrous roots downwards,
ribbed. Leaves-Usually 2-4, sessile or petiolate, 6.5-11.5 cm long,
ovate-lanceolate, often discolored, green, acute with prominent
veins, leaves in whorls on the nodes directly raised upwards,
angular, attenuate, stem covered with basal leaves forming a
tubular structure. Flowers-scape-7.6 -21 cm long, flower small
shortly stalked in terminal raceme, about 10 mm in diameter,
yellowish green with purple centre. Bracts- spreading shorter than
the ovary. Sepals-oblong, dorsal 1-4 nerved, lateral 3-5 nerved, 2
laterals rather shorter than the dorsal, margins recurved. Petalslinear,
slender, longer than sepals, margin recurved, lip-6, shield
like, slightly convex, tip rounded, notched or bilabiate, adnate
to the base, the column sides of the lip produced upwards into
large auricles, auricle of the lip very variable, acute, or obtuse,
straight, and slightly overlapping. Staminal Column- Very short
with short spreading arms. Anthers- Sub terminal, pollinia-4.
Fruits-6 chambered capsule. Seeds- minute, powdery, ovoid,
pseudobulbs 3-9 cm long and 1-3 cm in diameter, conical, fleshy,
smooth, shining, in pairs, new one look like garlic cloves, greenish
white, covered with membranous sheath, slightly mucilaginous,
remain alive over longer period. Flowering: July-August. Fruiting:
Pseudobulbs contain alkaloid, glycoside, flavonoids and
β-sitosterol. Also contains piperitone, O-Methylbatatasin-1,
8-cineole, citroenellal, eugenol, glucose, rhamnose, coline,
limonene, p-cymene and ceryl alcohol (Table 1).
a) Pseudo bulbs are Sweet, aphrodisiac, haemostatic,
antidiarrhoeal, styptic, antidysentric, febrifuge, cooling and tonic.
It is useful in sterility, vitiated conditions of Pitta and Vata, semen
related weakness, internal and external hemorrhages, dysentery,
fever, emaciation, burning sensation and general debility.
b)Jivaniya (Vitality promoter)- This medicinal plant is
vitality promoter, maintaining the balance between three doshas
i.e., Vata, Pitta and Kapha. It enhances the energy, body strength,
skin glow and other properties of the body.
c)Bramhaniya (Body mass promoter)- This medicinal
plant is body mass promoter. It is described within the Bramhaniya
d)Ayushya (Longevity)- This medicinal plant mitigate the
disorder of the body and specifically alleviates Tridosaja disorder
in the body to increase longevity and slow down the process of
a) Intake of Mahamayur Ghrita processed with Jivaka and
other herbs is useful in Rasaraktadi dhatugat vikara, shrotadi
indriya vikara (sensory organ disorders), svarabhransa (Aphesia),
asthma, cough, facial paralysis, vaginal disorders, blood disorders
and semen related problems.
b) Intake of powder prepared from Jivaka, and other herbs
mixed with an appropriate quantity of honey and crystal sugar is
useful in cough and cardiac diseases.
c)Vacadi Taila processed with Jivaka, and other herbs
used as anuvasana vasti; is beneficial for Gulma, distention, Vata
associated disorders and urinary incontinence.
d) Intake of Jivaniya Ghrita processed with Jivaka is
useful for the whole body vitiated with gout and Vata associated
e) Citrakadi Taila processed with Jivaka, and other herbs
is useful in Vata associated disorders, sciatica, limping, kyphosis,
gout, and urinary disorders.
f)Mahapadma Taila processed with Jivaka, and other
herbs is useful in gout and fever.
g)Jivaniya Ghrita processed with Jivaka and other herbs,
used properly, can be effective in treating gout and other chronic
Vata associated disorders.
h)Asthapana vasti processed with Jivaka and other
medicinal herbs is useful in treating Gulma, metrorrhagia,
i) Intake of Ghrita processed with Devadaru, Kakoli, Jivaka
and other medicinal herbs given in proper dose is useful in child
j)Himavana Agada prepared with the powder of
Pancavalkala, Jivaka and other herbs mixed with honey to make
a paste and external application of this paste on snake bite
alleviates the toxicity. It also alleviates other symptoms like
edema, erysipelas, boils, fever and burning sensation.
Crepidium amplectens (Jeevak) plant found in Central and
Eastern Himalaya from Uttarakhand to Assam, Sikkim and
other neighboring states is of significant importance due to its
multipurpose efficacy in the management of different disorders
and maintenance of proper health. Crepidium amplectens is one
among 292 species of genus Crepidium and family Orchidaceae.
It can provide various miraculous remedies for several severe
disorders. The environmental protection and conservation of
Crepidium amplectens requires immediate attention. A detailed
and serious survey of its natural habitat is also required to ensure
its availability. Another research study is required to find out its
ecological behavior in the natural environment - so as to increase
its density. Research work must be initiated in this direction
which is possible through tissue culture and modern agricultural
The information collected regarding Crepidium amplectens
needs a thorough phytochemical investigation including alkaloid
extraction and isolation with some clinical trials, biological
evaluation on experimental animal models, toxicity studies etc.
People are cultivating Crepidium amplectens (Jeevak) for their
economic upliftment and thereby protecting the species from
danger of extinction. But there is an urgent need in addition to
protection and conservation to create mass awareness among the
local people regarding the promotion of its therapeutic efficacy. The
paper highlights information to conserve Crepidium amplectens
for sustainable medicinal uses for the future generation. Since
Ayurveda and ethnobotany continue to play a major role in medical therapy, it is of utmost importance to conserve these resources for the welfare of mankind. This species has been listed
as “Endangered” for the globe, however, based on its low density,
frequency, and abundance in natural pockets in Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu & Kashmir, and Uttarakhand, it deserves to be categorized
as “Critically Endangered” for the globe; the natural habitats of
these species throughout the Himalayas need to be identified and
officially protected for conservation (Table 2).