Evaluation of Dental Care through Patient
Satisfaction Feedback – A Cross Sectional Study at Dental Institute of OJHA Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
Iqbal W*, Faran Farooq, Yashfika Abdul Bari and Shoro Farhana Nazir
Dow University of health sciences, Pakistan
Submission: August 22, 2017; Published: May 03, 2018
*Corresponding author: Wasif Iqbal, Dow University of Health Sciences, Pakistan, Email: [email protected]
How to cite this article:Iqbal W, Faran F, Yashfika A B, Shoro F N. Evaluation of Dental Care through Patient Satisfaction Feedback – A Cross Sectional Study
at Dental Institute of OJHA Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Adv Dent & Oral Health. 2018; 8(4): 555743. DOI: 10.19080/ADOH.2018.08.555743
Objective:The chief purpose of the study is to evaluate the patients’ satisfaction following routine dental treatment delivered at dental department of Dow University of Health Sciences OJHA hospital
Materials and Methods:The study was a cross- sectional questionnaire based survey at ojha hospital. The patient selection was random and the products of questionnaire received were based on likert scale coding. The results were measured through spss 16 software by applying descriptive analysis and anova test. Descriptive analysis was done to measure central tendency of the responses.
Results:The mean values of all the variables lie between MEAN=2.8 to 4.3 i.e. more than fair to good. The overall patient’s satisfaction level is calculates a 4.0 with standard deviation of SD=1.1. The responses of administrative efficiency, dentist proficiency, clinical setup and advocation if profoundly significant i.e. p value=<0.05 whereas responses of facilities compared with number of visits is not significant p value = >0.05 and vice – versa. The anova test applied within groups for number of visits over y axis is y = 0.1366x + 0.0754 with R² = 0.5396 whereas for level of education is y = 0.0056x + 0.0358 and R² = 0.0566.
Conclusion:It is concluded majority of patients were satisfied with the interaction between dentist and the patient, technical expertise, administrative competence and hospital’s environment whereas responses for the facilities compared with number of visits is not substantial but is found to be significant with education level of patients at Dow University of Health Sciences.
Satisfaction by patients is found to be the basic element of every hospital setup [1,2]. The term satisfaction is defined as the extent of an individual’s experience compared with his or her expectations . Current studies validate the alliance between patient’s satisfaction and satisfactory treatment measures . There are many countries whose primary incentives are to gauge patient satisfaction level in order to assess the level of care provided to patients but still this initiative are under process in developing countries such as in Pakistan [5,6]. Assessing the quality of care is a prerequisite in provision of ideal health services, in such appraisal the cooperation and participation of patient plays an important role . Health care providers worldwide unanimously consider patient satisfaction as a basic concern of their practice . It has been reported that satisfied patients are more likely than their dis-satisfied counterparts to show positive illness behaviors .
Nowadays, as patients have more understanding about dental care; their outlooks towards it have been modified completely. Dental care satisfaction’s feedback is essential for constant amendment of services provided. Patient’s assurance and satisfaction are elements of a dental organization . Kareem et al.  emphasized the importance of patient’s feedback and highlighted the fact that it has been neglected by caregivers.
Contentment with the health care is a useful measure that computes care, including the quality of care and physician-patient relationships. It has been used in medicine for several years, and as recent literature evidenced that is gaining familiarity in dentistry [12-16].
Kashinath et al.  studied the behaviors of patients visiting outpatient department and Tumkur  evidenced the fact that main reason for dissatisfaction was the needs of patients were neglected. The key element to be emphasized when considering the patient’s attitude towards care is maintaining a harmonious relation between demand and need of the patient which impacts the level of satisfaction. The perceptions of treatment need vary among those who visited regularly without the normative needs being evident, and those who attend until the pain leads to a miserable situation. Psycho-social variation among the patients is another determinant of distinctive demands .
As the Business and economical coding’s decoded in medicine and dentistry patients became the “consumers” of care, according to the phenomenon of “consumerism” honoring the patients’ feedbacks is inevitable . There are certain aspects, which have an impact on patient’s contentment to dental care; technical skills, accessibility, interpersonal elements, cost, and facilities . Treatment outcome has a greater influence on interest of
patients visiting the clinic or hospital. An unexpected experience
may cause them to delay appointments or even refrain them from
visiting the dentist again. Patients keep a check on the accessibility
and facilities and choose to go to hospitals accordingly. Treatment
quality relies on the availability of services .
Kumar & Chowhan  justified in their research study
that most of the patients were satisfied with hospital setup and
were contended with staff attitude. Recent studies determine
association between patient’s level of appeasement of patient and
positive treatment result . Patient dissatisfaction has a major
consequence on the business as well . Dentists should make
sure to keep this factor in mind and realize that this is due to their
poor actions and behaviors that patients tend to change their
dentists . There might be a great concern among dental care
workers regarding dental criticism made by patients .
There are many diseases in the world which greatly consider
hospital setup. Among them are dental problems which are
reported to be common today [27,28]. General public is more
dependent upon hospital facilities for dental diseases [4,29]
Patients are selective in choosing hospitals . It is said that
number of services are proportional to quality of treatment. The
more the hospital provides facilities, the more treatment quality
can be expected [20,29]. Patient’s attitude and expectations
towards quality of treatment is changing since awareness
regarding dental health care is increasing .
The standard of a hospital discipline in terms of treatment
provision can be assessed by satisfaction of patients receiving
treatment in the hospital. Tools such as structured questionnaires
which evaluate patient’s response to the dental treatment are
helpful in evaluating satisfaction of the patients to the dental
care delivered [31-34]. Majority of studies showed the patient
satisfaction following dental treatment at dental training institutes
[34,35]. Whereas studies consider the patient satisfaction with
comprehensive dental care provided by dental students are rarely
Worldwide various studies have been conducted to assess
patients’ satisfaction regarding the dental care delivered in several
institutes . The ages of patients fall between 30 to 40 years
as reported by most studies . Seemingly the students are
concerned about upgrading the living standards of the patients;
healthcare awareness is improved among patients resulting
in high demand for medical and dental services . Besides
providing public health services to patients on daily basis, medical
and dental training institutes gear up their students to combat
healthcare challenges on day today basis . In comparison to
medical schools, Dental schools given the priority to train their
students about appropriate dental care delivery to the patients
as a part of their curriculum therefore most of dental institutes
are continuously striving to improve the standards of training and
hence improved quality of the dental treatment delivered by their
Hence, the rationale of this study is to evaluate the patients’
gratification following routine dental treatment delivered at dental
department of Dow University of Health Sciences OJHAhospital,
and to measure the patients’ satisfaction level to the treatment
The research was commenced at dental department, Dow
University of Health Sciences OJHA Hospital. The research is
based on cross sectional study which is carried out through a
survey measuring patient satisfaction level by self-administered
The survey form, construed in national language, is an integral
part of this study. It considers the patients’ feedback concerning
5 basic components of hospital setup along with consent form.
The questionnaire contained factors which reflects the patient’s
sociodemographic profile, include marital status, education,
occupation, number of visits to the hospital. Age and gender
being the most important enclosed with the official registration
numbers mentioned with each form.
The consent form is filled by each and every participant
prior to acquiring the survey responses.The five dimensions
identified to evaluate the degree of satisfaction are; administrative
efficiency, prime facilities, dentist efficiency, clinical setup and
recommendation for the hospital. The patients were asked to fill
the survey forms abiding the ethical considerations primarily.
The responses of participants were analyzed on a LIKERT
SCALE. The scale was coded as 1= Poor, 2= Fair, 3= Average, 4=
Good, 5= Excellent. The result was obtained measuring central
tendencies and anova test was applied to measure the significance
level between number of visits and education level to the
responses of participants calculated by SPSS-16 software. The
patient selection was random and response rate was 97.6%.
Table 1 demonstrates socio-demographic specifications of
the patients. n= 778, patients participated in the survey. There
data record is set by official registration number including
basic demographic variables of age and gender assigned by the
administration of the dental OPD. Among different variables, it
is found that n= 254, 32.6% participants have completed their
primary education while n= 209, 26.9% were graduates. The
occupational status shows that n=221, 28.4% serves as labour i.e.
belong to low socio economic status, n= 218, 28% participants are
government employee and n= 95, 12.2% belong to the private or
commercial sector of the society. Out of 100 percent participants,
n= 375, 48.2% participants had to pay 1 to 10 number of visits, n=
252, 32.4% visited 10-20 times and n= 151, 19.4% visited more
than 20 times.
Table 2 shows reliability statistics. Likert scale is found to
be 80.3% reliable in this case. The overall reliability coefficient,
Cronbach’s alpha, is α = .837. It measures internal consistency
reliability for a set of variables. It is a reliable variance of the
composite score within 29 items.
Table 3 shows the summary of 29 items assessed by
responses of Likert scale. The overall mean for the 29 variables in
questionnaire is MEAN=3.664 i.e. above average to good whereas
range is R=1.503 with V=0.178 Variance.
Figure 1 reveals the descriptive statistics of all 29 variables
measured by Likert Scale. It is demonstrated by a bubble chart
which shows that the mean values of all the variables lie between
MEAN=2.8 to 4.3 i.e. more than fair to good. The overall patient’s
satisfaction level is calculates a 4.0 with standard deviation of
Table 4 is a brief illustration of the descriptive data i.e. central
tendencies measurement analysed for each major category
in the questionnaire whereas Figures 2-6 illustrates graphic
representation in form of histograms of each category in the
questionnaire. The overall group wise mean, median and mode
ranges in between MEAN=3.41 to 3.97, MEDIAN=3.4 to 4 and
MODE=3.2 to 5 respectively with standard deviation from SD=0.55
Figure 7 is a measure of overall central tendency represented
graphically. The satisfaction level is shown by a curve; the mean
satisfaction level is MEAN=3.6 with standard deviation of SD=0.58
and variance V=0.34 with range R=3.05. The overall satisfaction
level is found to be good. The patient satisfaction level over y- axis
is y = -0.4906x + 4.3298 and R² = 0.2903.
Figure 8 is a scatter plot representing ANOVA analysis against
number of visits and level of education. The plot reveals the
responses of administrative efficiency, dentist proficiency, clinical
setup and advocation if profoundly significant i.e. p value=<0.05
whereas responses of facilities compared with number of visits
is not significant p value = >0.05 and vice – versa. The anova
test applied within groups for number of visits over y axis is y =
0.1366x + 0.0754 with R² = 0.5396 whereas for level of education
is y = 0.0056x + 0.0358 and R² = 0.0566.
This study is conducted to assess the patients’ satisfaction
level through self-administered questionnaire covering all five
aspects needed for a hospital setup. The results attained from the
study found that majority of the participants studied up to primary
class and serves as labor, thus belong to low socio economic status.
Variation of Socio Economic Status (SES) influences health care
quality and treatment outcomes [39-42]. The results also showed
that higher frequency of graduated participants took part in the
survey whereby mean financial affordability is ranked asgood
according to the established scale. Whereas the study also reveals
that financial stipulation for dental treatment remain a significant
barrier to approach dental care [43,44]. A similar study justifying
corresponding results showing low educational level and financial
concerns are the factors impeding interest towards dental
treatment, therefore, middle or higher socio-economic groups
visited their dentists more frequently .
This study found that the determination of internalconsistency
reliability within the set of variables found by
coefficient alpha is considered very well. The quality services
usually assessed by standard clinical indices, unfortunately such
norms do not always commensurate patients’ expectancy [12,45-
47]. The various researches have evidenced that aspects of care
related to the investigation, accessibility, financial affordability,
optimal technical facilities, competent treatment plans, efficacy of
treatment outcome, maintenance of care, and consistent quality
control are the indices for appraisal [12,13]. In this study, that
mean reliability score of the tool used is above average to good.
The results of this study showed that the main reason for
ranking administrative efficiency as average was underprivileged
patient management system and neglected phone call answering
system whereas an above average performance at reception, great
staff cooperation, and excellent hospital environment are primary
factors for ranking administrative efficiency. As other studies
experience diminished patients’ response due to administrative
incompetency, lack of staff cooperation and long waiting time
which showed low priority . Thimmappayya  established
a similar association between hospital environment, management
skills, service provision and patient satisfaction. Trakroo 
enumerate the factors which affecting satisfaction level of
patients at OPDs. They are unusually prolonged waiting hours at
registration desk, touchy and moody attitude of staff, inadequate
space to accommodate patient, waiting time for consultation,
clinician’s objectionable behavior .
This study also finds the extent of satisfaction attained by
facilities appreciate by the patients at dental hospital is good
radiography department, average emergency facility, great
financial support and billing services. The major setback was
patients facing problems with the directions and there is no
systematic patient calling system.
Contrary to previous study by Klages & Zentner  who stated
that some patients mentioned a particular order of what they
would prefer in management of their discoloured anterior teeth
Moreover, research finds the dentist proficiency at dental
department of OJHA is ranked as good. Courteous and friendly
behavior by the dentist, satisfactory solutions regarding queries,
enough explanation of treatment plan may reduce the patients’
anxiety and improves eliminating the status gap between patient
and dentist, thus glorifies the probity of physicians’ character.
Studies revealed that the attitude of dental surgeons, thorough
examination, accurate diagnosis and explanation of the treatment,
flare-up management and frequency of appointments rated as
“good” in patient satisfaction . On dentists-patient interaction
favoring the consent prior to treatment by the dentist is the factor
patients are not satisfied. The survey conducted in New Zealand
reported that almost all the patients need to be informed in detail
about their dental treatment . Professional attitude and skills
estimated by the patients were satisfying. This is in accordance
with several studies which indicated that the dentist’s competency
and command in explaining the pathology, consequences and
treatment options to the patient received enough focus in
evaluation of satisfaction levels .
The results of this study found that dentist at OJHA hospital
are quite skilled in reducing anxiety of the patients. Dental anxiety
is one of the ultimate barriers with regard to dental treatment
[43,44]. Above all the beneficial two-way communication,
management of patients’ emotional state, ethical considerations
and utmost professionalism are critical to achieve patient’s
satisfaction [52,53]. Provision of simplified description of the
treatment options available should be focused by the dentist
to attain ideal levels of satisfaction . Also Rankin & Harris
 reported that 97% of the patients preferred dentists who
elaborate what the disease and cure is.
The other aspect of hospital setup was clinical department
and its cleanliness. The participants were highly satisfied with
sterilization protocols and cleanliness of the units. In addition,
they were also highly contended with cross infection control
measures and there was also satisfactory ranking to state of art
facilities at OJHA’s dental department.
It is found that patients were satisfied with the overall hospital
setup excluding some factors which were a major barrier for the
ranking. This is because the dental department is extremely cost
effective as it is a part of government sector. The cost becomes
major reason for the patients choosing any dental hospital which
is why patient management becomes hectic in the department.
The overcrowded dental OPDs mark a great satisfactory level
towards great treatment quality.
The study also finds that the number of visits patient made
to the hospital was not significant to administrative efficiency.
This is because, every time there is massive crowd and this made
the administration rather slow. It is also finds that provision of
facilities were not significant with number of visits patient made
whereas it is appreciating that every time patients’ visit OJHA
hospital, he is always contended with the dentist proficiency and
It is said that determining the patient satisfaction is
a multidimensional approach [23,56]. Dental treatment requirements not only vary among patients of different age, level
of education and socioeconomic status, but also their satisfaction
levels. The dental literature reported that socio-demographic and
psycho-social factors are responsible for ignorance of dental care
and non-compliance to prevention . The study reveals the fact
that the results and ranking are not significant with the education
level. It is admiring for any hospital setup for its ranking to remain
positive irrespective of the education level of the respondents.
The facilities provided to the participants is significant with
the education level revealing that the educated patients were
much satisfied with the facilities offered due to their better
,understanding and knowledge. The result shows similarity with
the study of Zastowny TR study .
The study concluded that the patients’ feedback regarding
their level of contentment with the health care quality is the
standard to assess the Services. Majority of the participants
visited the Dental Department Dow University of Health were
satisfied withdentist-patient interaction, technical expertise,
administrative competency and hospital’s environment. Whereas
the facilities determined to be unsubstantial when compared to the
number of visits by the patient but satisfactory when compared to
the education level.