Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae) as a Natural Antimicrobial Source Against Oral Bacteria
Marcelle Marie Buso-Ramos*, Simone Nataly Busato de Feiria, Giovana Cláudia Boni and José Francisco Höfling
1Department of Oral Diagnosis, University of Campinas, Brazil
Submission: April 21, 2017; Published: May 12, 2017
*Corresponding author: Marcelle Marie Buso-Ramos, Department of Oral Diagnosis, University of Campinas, Brazil, Tel/Fax:+55(19)2106-5322 ; Email:email@example.com
How to cite this article: Marcelle M B, Simone N B d F, Giovana C B, José F H. Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae) as a Natural Antimicrobial Source Against Oral Bacteria. Adv Dent & Oral Health. 2017; 4(5): 555650. DOI: 10.19080/ADOH.2017.04.555650
Psidium cattleianum or strawberry guava is a common tropical plant in Brazil belonging to Myrtaceae family. However, this plant is an underexploited source of medicinal compounds, evidenced by photochemical investigations that describe, in recent reports, its antioxidant, anti-proliferative and antimicrobial actions. In this mini review, the antimicrobial prospect of the extract and the essential oil from P. cattleianum leaves against oral bacteria will be discussed. It is believed that, this review will serve as a useful reference and encourage future research about antimicrobial potential of this plant against oral microorganisms.
Investigation of natural compounds from popular medicinal plants have advanced in the last decades in the attempt to characterize scientifically the possible beneficial effects and side effects, as well as the determination of a safe dose of use . Among the families of medicinal plants, the Myrtaceae family stands out, whose genus Psidium adds fruit species such as Psidium guajava, the popular guava. However, the species Psidium cattleianum and its variants, known as strawberry guava, has been studied in the last decades because of its medicinal property such as analgesic effects , antioxidant [3,4], anti-proliferative action , anti-cancer  and antimicrobial agent . In popular medicine, P. cattleianum is known for its action against diabetes, tummy aches, urinary tract diseases and diarrhea, where it is recommended to use shoots, leaves and bark of the trunk .
The medicinal effects are derived from the bioactive compounds in plants that originate from the secondary metabolism, which is not involved in the essential metabolic pathways for plant’s life, but play the role of defense in plants against bacteria, fungi, viruses, environmental stress, Herbivorous attack and attraction of pollinating agents . The phenolic compounds are found in plants extracts and showed antimicrobial activity by causing degradation in bacterial cell wall, damage in cytoplasm membrane and consequent cellular material extravasation, cytoplasm coagulation and disruption in the ion/electrons membrane transport system. Any disarrangement on the cellular surface entails in ruptures in cell surface, which leads the output of vital cellular components and entry of harmful in bacterial cell .
Terpenoid compounds are found in essential oils. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are the most abundant terpenoids compounds and play an antimicrobial action involving membrane fluidification, destabilization of membrane binding proteins involved in signaling and anchorage, rest of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis in Candida albicans cells . Turina et al.  reported that owing the high hydrophobicity of monoterpenes, their toxic effects on the bacterial cell membrane result in its expansion, fluidity, and permeability, in addition to causing inhibition of respiration and change in the process of ions transport, but further studies should be conducted to characterize in detail these mechanisms. In the work of , the Brazilian P. cattleianum plant showed by GC/MS 33 components corresponding to 96.9% of the oil, and the main terpenoids of the essential oil were α-thujene (25.2%), followed by 1,8-cineole (16.4%) and β-caryophyllene (10.2%). This results were similar to the African P. cattleianum plant, that were identified by CG/MS a total of 53 chemical components, accounting for 61% of the essential oil and the major component was caryophyllene oxide (12.43%), bicyclo(4.4.0)dec-l-ene (6.61%), 2,3-butanediol
diacetate (4.84%) and patchoulene (4.73%). The presence of
many terpenic and ester compounds is thought to contribute to
the unique flavor of the P. cattleianum leaves . In the aqueous
extract of P. cattleianum the phenolic compounds present were: 3
flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, and cyanidin) and 1 is a tannin
(ellagic acid) . Although, the oil and extract compounds of P.
cattleianum leaves may vary in response to different physical,
atmospheric, growth region and time of year collections.
Scur et al. , testing the antimicrobial activity of Psidium
cattleianum essential oil, (prepared with metanol) showed a high
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 200mg/ml for grampositive
microorganisms (E. faecalis, S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B.
subtillis and C. albicans) and for gram-negative microorganisms
(P. aeruginosa, S. enteritidis, P. mirabilis, K. pneumonia and E.coli).
Although, comparative studies involving the essential oil of leaves
of P. cattleianum are still in scarce and its antimicrobial effects are
undescribed and uncharacterized. The extract of P. cattleianum
produced with ethyl acetate showed MIC of 125ug/ml against
S.aureus while the methanol extract showed an MIC of 250ug/
mL, but both extracts types had no effect against gram-negative
microorganisms . However, Gaetti-Jardim et al.  tested
the antimicrobial action of aqueous and hydro alcoholic extracts
from P. cattleianum leaves against gram-negative microorganisms
(F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis) showed MICs of 2mg/mL in both
extracts with a reduction of 50% in bacterial growth and 8mg/mL
for aqueous and hydro alcoholic extracts with a reduction of 90%
in bacterial growth. These different results may be related to the
different extractive methods and the solvent used in the process
employed by the authors, which may have influenced in isolating
bioactive compounds of plant and determination of properties
Brighenti et al.  evaluated the leaves aqueous extract of P.
cattleianum on the biofilm of Streptococcus, showed that biofilms
exposed to the extract effects at 1.6% (v/v) for 2h were shown to
decrease in S. mutans proteins from carbohydrate metabolism and
a reduction in pH drop after exposure to the extract. The decrease
in extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) formation observed after
sucrose application may also be related to the inhibition of
glicosiltranferases (GTF) activity in dental biofilms, which reduce
de biofilm resistance of S. mutans.
Menezes et al.  also studied and corroborated that the
aqueous extract of P. cattleianum significantly reduced the S.
mutans count and decreased the enamel demineralization rate
in rats, characterizing an anti-carie activity. Brighenti et al. ,
evaluating the anti-caries effect of P. cattleianum leaf extract using
an “in situ” caries model found that P. cattleianum leaf extract
might reduce enamel demineralization, acidogenic potential,
microorganism viability and extracellular polysaccharide
production. Having clearly demonstrated the potential activity of P. cattleianum leaf extract to interfere in “in situ” biofilm
pathogenicity, the effect of this plant extract on biofilm formation
“in vivo” should be evaluated in the future.
The low toxicity of Psidium spp. extract is described in the
literature. The LD50 of P. guajava leaf extract is more than 5g
kg¬-. Teixeira et al.  demonstrated that P. guajava infusion
does not alter chromosomes or the cell cycle both in vitro and
in vivo. Costa et al.  show that P. cattleianum leaf extract
does not have any genotoxic or mutagenic effects on some cell
types of mice, suggesting that this extract can be used as a safe
therapeutic agent. The crude ethanolic extract of the plant was
obtained through maceration and fractionated with hexane,
dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate for test in microcrustacean
Artemia salina for toxicological assessment. Regarding toxicity,
hexane and dichloromethane fractions were considered nontoxic,
whereas the crude ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction
showed low toxicity . There is no data in literature about P.
cattleianum essential oil toxicity.
Extracts and essential oil from Psidium cattleianum leaves has
antimicrobial properties against oral microorganisms, presenting
absence or low toxicity and cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells. Studies
with P. cattleianum essential oils and extracts that characterize
medicinal effects and its photo chemical composition should be
encouraged for propose future alternatives to combat infections,
control microorganisms growth and promote surfaces treatment
against biofilms development with the aim that, in the future, can
be applied in health area in an economically viable way.