Prevalence of Malarial Fever in Local Area of Mansehra
Muhammad Zahid khan1*, Shahid Iqbal1, Mujaddad Ur Rahamn1, Azam Hayat1, Ayub Jadoon1, Nusrat Shaheen1, Muahmmad Mehran Anjum2 and Nawab Ali2
1Department of Microbiology, Abbotabad University of Science and Technology, Pakistan
2Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture Peshwar, Pakistan
Submission: March 14, 2017; Published: March 22, 2017
*Corresponding author: Muhammad Zahid khan, Department of Microbiology, Abbotabad University of Science And Technology, Pakistan,Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Muhammad Z k, Shahid I, Mujaddad U R, Azam H, Ayub J, et al. Prevalence of Malarial Fever in Local Area of Mansehra. Ortho & Rheum Open Access 2017; 5(3): 555662. DOI: 10.19080/OROAJ.2017.05.555662
Malaria is one of the most severe life threatening disease worldwide. It is a leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries, where young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans. In fact, new antibiotic and possible vaccine are needed but the importance of effective anephelos mosquitoes control and education of the community is compulsory. Malaria kills 3000 children everyday world wide. In Pakistan, half million malaria cases occur annual are more affected in Khyber pakhtunkhwa province especially in distract Mansehra. Malaria is cause of estimated 50000 deaths each year worldwide mostly in infants, children and pregnant women, he added. In countries where Malaria is common, women are 4 times more likely to suffer malaria attacks during pregnancy resulting in low weight babies and stillbirths. Moreover, nearly 60% of miscarriages in hyper endemic areas are also due to malaria. Morocco a Muslim country remarkably reduced malaria cases to 00% Vector control measures; strong political will and Community participation are main way to reduce malaria transmission at the community level. It is the only intervention that can reduce malaria transmission from very high levels to close to zero. Malaria in Mansehra was mainly caused because of a lack of awareness and improper sewerage system and also unhygenic conditions. For this, a proper method of prevention and treatment should be designed which not only provide benefit to the patient and facilitate the physician but also provide an important socioeconomic benefit to everyone.
The word malaria is a combination of two Italian words “Mala” means bad and “Aria” means the air . It was the belief of that time (in 1753) that the bad air transmits the disease, inhalation of poisonous gases emanating from a marshy place was supposed to be the chief factor . About Seven Million years ago, Malaria was identified as one of the most serious and deadliest among blood infections, particularly found in Chimpanzees, but in few hundred thousand years it was observed that malaria not only attacks on chimpanzees but also targets human beings swell . Malaria is documented in a Chinese medical document Nei Ching (Canon of the drugs) about 2700 BC. Nei Chinwags abbreviated by Chinese royal leader “Huang Ti” in which several clinical signs and symptoms were named as Malaria.
In Fourth century BCE Malaria killed a large number of populations in Greece, hence it was hot issue of that time . Ancient Greeks starts studies on Malaria. Empedocles ofAgrigentum in 550 BC, Homer in 850BC while Hippocrates in 400 BC became conscious of the Malarial Signs and symptoms like Poor Health of the patients living in Marshy places, Enlargement of the Spleen and fevers etc.  Malaria was then called “fever and ague” in United States, because that time early American people were unaware about the parasites that transmits malaria . USA has no historical roll in the tragedy of Malaria. It was estimated that in USA Malaria incidence was very high in 1875. But after 1914 more than 600,000 occurs per year. During Vietnam War and the World War II, Malaria was a serious issue in USA military campaigns. US military lost more time due to malaria than to ammunition and bullets .
In 1880 a French military doctor Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran examined the blood of a human being infected with Malaria and found Parasites in Red Blood Cells. For his discovery he was rewarded in 1907 with Nobel Prize . An Italianneurophysiologist Camillo Golgi (discoverer of the Golgi Bodies
in the cell) suggested that the parasites (merozoites) that
reside in the RBCs, upon maturity produce a large number of
new parasites which are releases in the bloodstream. He also
observed that there are about 2 types of the malaria infection,
one with the fever of every other day (tertian periodicity) and
a new with the fever of every 3rd day (quartan periodicity) In
1890 Raimondo Filetti and Giovanni Batista Grassi introduced
the terms Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax for two of
the malarial parasites whichattacks on human .
Laveran believed that there was only one specie that
infects human being and named it as Oscillariamalariae but
later on in 1897 William H. Welch identified malignant tertian
malaria parasite and named it as Plasmodium falciparum.
In 1922 Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium ovale were
identified by Biraj Mohan Das Guptaand Robert Knowles in longtailed
macaques (Monkeys). In 1965 the first case of human
infection with Plasmodiumknowlesi was reported. Later on in an
experiment Giuseppe Bastianelli and Amico Bignami collected
mosquitos of the specie Anopheles claviger and they were fed
by Plasmodium. As a result, an absolute sporogonic round of
Plasmodium malariae, P. vivax and P. falciparum was observed.
In 1899,infected mosquitoes that were fed by a patient in Rome,
they were sent to London where they fed on 2 volunteers, as a
result of which both of them were infected by malaria .
A Single cell protozoon parasite which belongs to genus
Plasmodium is the main cause of malarial infection. More than
one hundred species of Plasmodium exists which cause malaria
in humans, birds, reptiles and in chimpanzees’ as well. There
are about four species of plasmodium that infects human beings
i.e. Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodiumfalciparum, Plasmodium
malariae and Plasmodium ovale . Moleculer studies revealed
that Plasmodium vivax is derived from an antientparqaa site of
macaque from Africa . All the Malarial parasites have different
morphologies and appearances, and can be differentiated from
one another. They also cause different clinical symptoms  .
In high endemic areas there are many chances of multiple
infections. At the same time two or more than two species of
a parasite may attack a single host . Among all plasmodium
species, Infection with the Plasmodium falciparum is deadliest
because of its severity of infection and serious complications
[10,11]. It causes life threatening fever that leads to high level
mortality in a population . Any stage of the Red Blood Cells
can be easily invaded by Plasmodium Falciparum which results
in high parasitemia that makes it a virulent Parasite. Cerebral
malaria, black water fever, non-cardiopulmonary edema, lower
Glucose level, Anemia and acute renal failure are the most
serious clinical manifestations that are linked with the infection
of P. Falciparum [10,11].
The multiplication of the parasite is so high that they
become twenty fold just in two days . Plasmodium vivax is
the 2nd most common parasite that is distributed worldwide and
comparatively less severe than P. Falciparum P. vivax is mostly
found in tropical areas especially in entire Asia . P vivax
affects about 75 million people worldwide. Most of the cases
are in S. America and Asia . Relapse cases of the Plasmodium
vivaxcan occur up to 3 years . Infection of the Plasmodium
ovale is very rare, but sometimes found in W. Africa. Plasmodium
malariae is eliminated from temprate regions, aperson who is
infected with the Plasmodium malariae may be asymptomatic
(show no symptoms), and the Plasmodiummalariae can stay in
the blood for decades without anymalarial signs and symptoms
. In Pakistan only two species of Plasmodium are dominant
i.e. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax .
In 1897 a British officer Ronald Ross studied on birds and
mosquitoes, and suggested that malaria can be transferred from
infected bird to healthy bird through Anopheles mosquito. This
study revealed the secrets of the life cycle of the parasite that a
part of the life of Plasmodium is spent in mosquitoes, later on it
was termed as Sporogonic Cycle. Ronald Ross was then rewarded
by Nobel Prize in 1902for his discovery .
Major vectors for the transmission of Plasmodium are
Anopheles funestus, A. bwambae, A. nili, A.merus, A. arabiensis
and A. gambiae. About six other speciesin A. gambiae also act
as vectors of malarial infection in South and Eastern Africa [15-
17]. Genus Anopheles of mosquitoes is an important vector
of plasmodium transmission on islands and coastal areas of
Southeast Asia. Molecular studies showed a large number of
polymorphism in A. funestus, An. Gambiae and A. arabiensis .
Studies were conducted on the Plasmodium vectors of
Pakistan which resulted that there are about 24 species of
anopheles mosquitoes including A. sergenti, A. pulcherrimus,
subpictus, A. dthali, A. culicifacies, An. pallidus, A.
turkhudi, A. annularis, A. fluviatilis, A. stephensi, A. superpictus,
A. multicolor, A. willmori, A. lindesayi, A. moghulensis, A. theobald,
A. maculates, A. claviger, A. gigas, A.barianensis, A. splendidus, A.
barbirostris, A. nigerrimus.
peditaeniatus, A. culicifacies and A. stephensi are the
species that gain resistance to many of the insecticides including
Dieldrin, DDT, carbamates and organophosphates(malathion,
fenitrothion) . Primary vector species in Pakistan are A.
culicifacies and A. Stephensi [20-23]. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
province of Pakistan, a large number of A. stephensi and A.
culicifacies were reported as vectors of plasmodium . But the
number of A. stephensi is much more then Anopheles culicifacies
Anopheles culicifacies is dominant in Punjab province of
Pakistan. It is more active before September while it disappears
after the month of September [20-24]. An. stephensi is a subtropical
species which is distributed in the entire the middle
east and South Asia. In Arid and Semi -arid zone of Rajasthan
and Gujarat A. subpictus Grassi were found to be more common
species . An. stephensi is an exclusive vector of malaria
in Pakistan, India and in Afghanistan. It has an amazing
characteristic of proficient breeding in underground water
reservoirs mostly in urban areas .
Malaria is a tropical disease which worldwide distributed
mostly in tropical areas, in entire Sub-Saharan Africa and in South
Africa, South America Southeast Asia, India, Central America and
Pacific Islands. Pakistan is located in the middle of the malaria
belt around the globe encompassing tropical and subtropical
areas . Malaria cause approximately 8,63,000 deaths in
2008 and About 243 million malaria cases are reported every
year . About 1.2 billion populations ofthe Pacific countries
and South East Asia are at higher risk of malarial transmission,
representing about one third of total world population [29,14].
There are about 109 of malaria-endemic countries, where
about 3.3 billion people are at risk for malaria. 50% of global
population at risk for malaria, whereas 90% deaths in Africa are
caused by Malaria in which 5.85% are children . Plasmodium
vivax is chiefly a widespread cause of malaria in Asia and Central
and South America . Probable figure of yearly malaria
episodes in Pakistan is 1.5 million . Plasmodiumvivax is
internationally distributed and is the chief species in many
countries [29,14]2.6 billion Population is at risk of vivax
infection throughout the world . Infection by Plasmodium
vivax is generally regarded as benign malarias with low mortality
level [29,14]. On the other hand, the rate of infection of the P.
falciparum is comparatively narrower than that of Plasmodium
vivax but it is the serious cause of mortalities in Pakistan. In
2005, falciparum malaria was one of the 33percent of reported
definite malaria cases, this rate reduced to 24 percent in 2008
In 2004 the number of malaria cases were 103,416, in 2006
they were 124910, in 2007 they were 128570 while in 2008 the
number of malaria cases were 104454 (WHO, 2005). Pakistan
is a tropical country with the improper irrigation and dumping
of garbage system and other wastes. Majority of the population
of Pakistan live in rural areas where there is unhygienic
environment, all these factors leads to malariogenic potential
. Because of a countrywide malaria eradication fight in
1961, malaria was almost eradicated in Pakistan for the period
of 1960s with 9500 positive cases in 1967 but due to Financial
and administrative crises and political disturbances Malaria
again arouse in 1970s reaching epidemic level in 1972-73 .
It is estimates that the rate of malarial infections is enlarged
by 40 percent in the middle of 1970 and 1997 in sub-Saharan
Africa . While the number of deaths due to malaria
worldwide has decreased from 985,000 in 2000 to 781,000 in
. To deal with this infection, public health personnel selected
cautiously many avoidance methods appropriate to a exacting
area or environment  Latest studies reveled that there were
225 million cases of malarial infection and an estimated 781,000
deaths reported in 2009 .
About 300-500 million people infected with the malaria
infection while 1.1 - 2.7 million deaths occur worldwide annually.
Children under age group <5 years are more susceptible for
the mortality rate caused by malarial infection. In 2004, 20
percent deaths of the children were reported . In Eastern
Mediterranean Region (EMR), there were 5.7 million confirmed
malaria cases, of which 17% cases were registered in Pakistan
. In 2010, Due to flood estimated cases reported from
Pakistan . In 2003 Malaria control program stated serious
outbreaks in many districts. This may clarify the elevated rates
of authenticated cases in 2002 and 2003 in KP. By 2005 guidance
had been imparted in 16 districts of KP. Improved investigative
techniques (diagnostic tools) could have condensed false
identification, and afterward report for the decrease in figure
of confirmed malaria cases after 2003, and the outbreaks could
have been controlled [36-41].
Ronald Ross discovered in 1897 that the avian malaria
parasite Plasmodium relictum transmitted by culicinemosquitoes.
He suggested that human malaria may also be transmitted by
mosquitoes. After his study and research then he proved that
human malaria is indeed transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes.
It was proved by many of the Italian scientist. Ross was a wellknown
military medical doctor he was operational in India till
1894 he didn’t believed that a parasite is the cause of malarial
infection that resides in blood, but Manson proved him with
the malarial positive slides that this infection is actually a blood
infection that is transmitted by blood meal of female Anopheles
Asexual stage begins when a female Anopheles mosquito
(infected with malaria) bites a healthy human being and infuses
the sporozoites in the bloodstream of that healthy person. These
sporozoites move in the hepatic circulation and attack the liver
In liver cells sporozoites undergoes multiple rounds
of asexual division as a result of which many uninucleated
merozoites are produced. These merozoites released in the
general circulation and attack on Red Blood Cells .
Merozoites invade RBCs and each merozoite undergoes
second phase of asexual multiplication as a result of which 8-16
new merozoites are produced in each RBC. Each new merozoite
again invades a new RBC, this cycle continues and clinical
manifestations (fever, Headache, Anemia) are appeared .
In the gut of the mosquito ex-flagellation of the male
gametocytes takes Place. Then both the male and female
gametocytes become fuse together and converted in to a
motile zygote. Zygote is then transformed into ookinete .
The ookinete then penetrate the wall of the gut and converted
in to a conspicuous oocyst, which is then converted in to
spookiest. Spookiest results in the development of sporozoites
which migrate towards the salivary glands of female anopheles
mosquito and are ready to be infuse in to the new host during
blood meal of the mosquito  The life cycle of the plasmodium
within the mosquito is about 8-35 days, after  Sometime
the malarial parasites become dormant in the host body, show
no signs and symptoms (Hypnozoite stage) parasite wakes
up suddenly and cause attacks of malarial fever . Human
malaria is caused by any species of the plasmodium . But
In spite of human the parasitic Plasmodium species also infect
rodents, birds, monkeys, chimpanzees and reptiles . Number
of White Blood Cells becomes low in the malaria infection .
Clinical symptoms and manifestations appear in the asexual
stage of the parasite, mostly in Erythrocytic cycle when the
parasite reproduces in Red Blood Cells. Parasite count in the
blood is directly proportional to the clinical presentations
. Sometime the parasite remains inactive in the human
body, intemperate areas one out of five cases of Plasmodium
vivax began relapse in a year after mosquito bite, which is
called thehypnozoite stage of the parasite . Neutrophils
are activated in the infection of Plasmodium falciparum
which results in endothelial damage and organ failure .
Other clinical presentations in the Malaria infection includes
Temperature, Headache, juindus, enlargement of spleen and
liver, thrombocytopenia (platelets deficiency), diarrhea, apnea,
respiratory distress .
Hemolysis cytokine disturbances and decreased rate of RBC
production and maturation which leads to anemic condition or
dyserythropoiesis (defective development of erythrocytes) .
Enlargement of spleen may lead to death of an individual .
Plasmodium infection is a major cause of paediatric anaemia in
malaria patients. During Erythrocytic cycle when RBCs are under
attack, Haemoglobin concentration becomes lower due to RBC
destruction and also due to the removal of parasitized and nonparasitized
RBCs . When the Haemoglobin level become less
or equal then 11.0 gm/dl then this condition may be termed as
mild anaemia . This criterion was used 1995 to investigate
the anaemia burden . When the Hb level becomes 7- 8 gm/
dl, that condition is called moderate anaemia while if it is less
than 5 gm/dl then the anaemia is called severe anaemia .
A gold standard technique and established method for the
diagnosis of malarias is the Microscopy. But without technical
expertise it may not produce a good result . It is based on
finger pricked blood which is poured on a slide, thin and thick
blood films are prepared. Giemsa stain is used for staining then
with the help of immersion oil slides are examined under x100
lens of the compound microscope [56,57]. But here me used
only strip method for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium
falciparum against malarial patients in Mansehra during my four
months of work.
RDT tests are based on the finding of antigens of the malarial
parasites in RBCs by using an immunochromatographic technique.
RDT also called Immunochromatographic Technique (ICT). It is
based on antigen-antibody interaction. For the field diagnosis it is
very good and sensitive diagnostic technique. Malaria diagnosis
is improved with the help of worldwide implementation of RDTs
[28,58]. ICT tests that detect P. falciparum are based on histidine
rich protein 2 (HRP-2), that is specific to P. falciparum While
those that detect P. vivax are based on Plasmodium aldolase
and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) detection using
monoclonal antibodies which start reaction with LDH of all
species including P. falciparum. Trophozoites and gametocytes
of the P. falciparum produced Histidine-richprotein II (HRP-II)
which is a water- soluble protein. HRP-2 may persist in the blood
for days or weeks after treatment, whereas LDH is only detected
if live parasites are present. Parasite lactate dehydrogenase
(pLDH) is an enzyme which is produced by gametocytes of
Currently Test kits are available to detect pLDH from all four
Plasmodium species. They can distinguish P. falciparum from
the non-falciparum species, but cannot differentiate between P.
vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. Some of the RDT kits detect all
four malarial parasites mention in their brand name or their
marketing material only two species i.e. “PF/PV”. This lead to
confusion about their diagnostic capabilities . ICT tests
are obtainable in many designs like plastic cards, cassettes or
dipsticks. The quality of the ICT format depends upon producer
as well as on conditions in which it is being stored. This test is 90
percent more sensitive than microscopy. For the field diagnosis
RDT/ ICT can tolerate temperature and humidity depending
upon the manufacturer .
RDT format consists of a nitrocellulose strip, on which dye
labeled specific antibodies are coated on a thin line for malarial
antigen. And either antibody specific for the labeled antibody, or
antigen, is bound at the control line. A drop of blood is poured
on the nitrocellulose strip then a buffer is also added which flush
the blood towards the antibodies. RBCs are lysed and the parasite
antigen becomes naked and mixed with the labeled antibody. If
there is specific antigen, that will react with the antibody on the
strip and become visible in the test line. While other labeled
antibodies will be tapped on the control line .
During four months of work, 100 fever suffering patients
were handled, there were only some patient that suffer from
malarial fever. There are total 29 patients of malarial fever out of
100. In 29 malaria patients only 5 patient were suffering from P.
Falciparum which is most severe and life threatening condition
of malaria (Table 1).
For the development of malarial drugs sexual stages malarial
parasites were cultured but they gain resistance to drug, as
culturing of liver stages, were extra hard to accomplish, made
it probable to build up and experimentally test the drugs in
opposition to this stage, this provided significant information
about the immune reaction in the liver. Finally, the culture of
sporogonic stages has enabled researchers to discover that in
the mosquito vector what happens to the parasite .
Allopathic: Drugs that is required for malarial treatment
includes sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine, atovaquoneproguanil,
quinine or quinidine, clindamycin, doxycycline,
chloroquine, and primaquine . The artemisinin are the most
effective medicines that have ever been invented for . A lot
of work has been done on malarial vaccines with limited success
. The circum sporozoite protein (CSP) is an antigen that is
present on the outside of sporozoites, has been used broadly as
an objective for the development of vaccines .
Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) that is taken time
to time regardless of malarial infection is recommended by
the World Health Organization especially for pregnant women.
IPT immune the body for the specific parasite encounters .
Malaria, especially Falciparum malaria, is a medical emergency
that requires a hospital stay. Chloroquine is often used as an antimalarial
medication. However, chloroquine-resistant infections
are common in some parts of the world. Possible treatments for
chloroquine-resistant infections include:
The combination of quinidine or quinine plus
doxycycline, tetracycline, or clindamycin
Atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone)
Mefloquine or artesunate
The combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine
The choice of medication depends in part on where you were
when you were infected.
Medical care, including fluids through a vein (IV) and other
medications and breathing (respiratory) support may be needed.
Advantage of Homeopathic Treatment: Homeopathy
is the science that takes a holistic approach to healing. Natural
and safe, Homeopathic medicines are deep acting and have
no side effects on the body. Unlike the conventional mode of
medicine, Homeopathic medicines do not suppress the disease
and its symptoms. In fact, they attack the disorder at the root
and set off the body’s own restorative processes, making it
strong enough to completely eradicate the disease. Supressing
the disease process makes it stubborn. Homeopathic medicines
are a natural, healing alternative .
Homeopathic Medicines for Malaria: Top rated
Homeopathic medicines for malaria are China, Arsenic Album
and Chininum Sulphuricum. China is one of the most prescribed
Homeopathic medicines for malaria at any stage of progression.
The symptoms to look out for include chill in the mornings with
debilitating night sweats. In malaria cases with high temperature
with marked periodicity and great restlessness Arsenic Album
shows the best results. Chininum Sulphuricum is most effective
in malaria cases with great chill and shivering in the body
Chininum Sulphuricum and Nux Vomica –
Homeopathic medicines for malaria with marked chill
and shivering (cold stage): Chininum Sulphuricum and Nux
Vomica are two well indicated Homeopathic medicines for
malaria with marked chilliness and shivering (cold stage).
Chininum Sulphuricum is very effective where the chill occurs
at 3 pm every day. The person experiences great shivering even
in a warm room. For malaria in the cold stage, with blueness
of fingernails, Nux Vomica is recommended as one of the most
effective Homeopathic medicines. Also, in cases where the
person feels chilliness on being uncovered, yet will not want to
be covered, Nux Vomica is prescribed as one of the most effective
Homeopathic medicines for malaria .
Boletus and Eupatorium Perfoliatum – Top
Homeopathic medicines for malaria with profuse sweating
(sweat stage): The most useful Homeopathic medicines for
malaria with profuse sweating (sweat stage) are Boletus and
Eupatorium Perfoliatum. Homeopathic medicine Boletus is
prescribed in malaria cases with profuse perspiration, especially
at night, along with severe chills and fever. Eupatorium
Perfoliatum works as one of the best Homeopathic medicines
for malaria cases where all complaints, except headache, are
relieved by perspiration. The person experiences chills, mostly between 7 am and 9 am, preceded by strong thirst and aching
Arsenic Album and China – Best Homeopathic
medicines for malaria with high fever (heat stage): Malaria
with high fever (heat stage) is attended well with Homeopathic
medicines Arsenic Album and China. Arsenic Album is one of
the most excellent Homeopathic medicines for malaria with
high grade fever with marked periodicity. Great restlessness
accompanying high fever that gets worse after midnight is
also treated well with Arsenic Album. China is one of the
most effective Homeopathic medicines for malaria with high
temperature that returns every week. The person complains of
chill in the morning with debilitating night sweats .
Natrum Muriaticum and Pulsatilla – Effective
Homeopathic medicines for malaria with headache: Natrum
Muriaticum and Pulsatilla are rated among the most effective
Homeopathic medicines for malaria with headache. Natrum
Muriaticum is prescribed in case of continued chilliness along
with the headache, especially on waking in the morning. Malaria
cases with headache that persists from sunrise to sunset are also
best treated with Homeopathic medicine Natrum Muriaticum. In
case of chill with pains in certain spots, especially in the evening,
Pulsatilla is one of the best Homeopathic medicines for malaria.
Complaints of wandering stitches in the head during sweat are
also treated well with Homeopathic medicine Pulsatilla .
China, Alstonia and Ferrum Phosphoricum – Top
grade Homeopathic medicines for malaria with notable
weakness: The most prescribed Homeopathic medicines for
malaria with notable weakness are China, Alstonia and Ferrum
Phosphoricum. China acts well in all stages of malarial fever
with great exhaustion. Debilitating night sweats with fever
that returns every week are also treated well with China,
making it one of the sought after Homeopathic medicines for
malaria. Alstonia is a great Homeopathic tonic for debilitating
and exhausting malarial fever. On the other hand, cases of chill
occurring daily at 1 pm, with marked prostration, are attended
well with Ferrum Phosphoricum, making it one of the most
remarkable Homeopathic medicines for malaria.
iii. Prevention: With the discovery mosquitoes in the
malaria transmission, provided researches with a new weapon
against malaria. It is experimentally proved that by the reducing
the contact of the healthy person with the infected persons
declines the risk of malarial infection. Other methods to prevent
the malarial infection include the distraction of mosquito
breeding places, use of anti-mosquitoes oils and use of mosquito
nets, appropriate clothing, mosquito repellents, particularly in
the evening and after dark (long-sleeved shirts, trousers, socks,
Biological control includes larvivorous fish that eatupon
the lavas of the mosquitoes. Some entomopathogenic bacteria,
such as Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. Israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bsph) are used to control the vectors.
Chemoprophylaxis of Malaria is recommended for those
people who travel to malaria-endemic areas and travel medical
specialists must be contacted before travel. As malaria is a
blood infection, blood donors must be properly examined for
the history of malarial parasites . People who are taking antimalarial
medications may still become infected. Avoid mosquito
bites by wearing protective clothing over the arms and legs,
using screens on windows, and using insect repellent.
Chloroquine has been the drug of choice for protecting against
malaria. But because of resistance, it is now only suggested for
use in areas where Plasmodium vivax, P. oval, and P. malariae are
present. Falciparum malaria is becoming increasingly resistant
to anti-malarial medications. For travelers going to areas where
Falciparum malaria is known to occur, there are several options
for malaria prevention, including mefloquine, atovaquone/
proguanil (Malarone), and doxycycline.
From the obtained related study it may be concluded that
malaria is a life threatening disease. Prevention and treatment
should be designed which not only provide benefit to the patient
and facilitate the physician but also provide an important
socioeconomic benefit to everyone.