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Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Seeds of Phytolacca Latbenia (Moq.) walte. A Wild Medicinal Plant of Tropical and Sub-Tropical Region of Pakistan
Shabir Ijaz*, Anjum Perveen, Nausheen Ghaffar
Centre for Plant Conservation, University of Karachi, Pakistan
Submission: October 10, 2019; Published: November 13, 2019
*Corresponding author: Shabir Ijaz, Centre for Plant Conservation, University of Karachi, Pakistan
How to cite this article: Shabir Ijaz, Anjum Perveen, Nausheen Ghaffar. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Seeds of Phytolacca Latbenia (Moq.)
walte. A Wild Medicinal Plant of Tropical and Sub-Tropical Region of Pakistan. Organic & Medicinal Chem IJ. 2019; 9(1): 555754 DOI: 10.19080/OMCIJ.2019.09.555754
Phytolacca latbenia (Moq.) walte locally known as Luber belonging to family Phytollacaceae is used in traditional medicine system and pharmaceutical industries as well. Whole plant is medicinally important. The aim of this study was to analyze the seeds of Phytolacca latbenia (Moq.) Walte physico-chemically and phytochemically. Various bioactive compounds (alkaloids, terpenoids, favonoids, saponins, carbohydrate, proteins etc) were detected in water extract, while other solvents were not ideal for extraction few compounds were screened out from them. High extraction was done by water solvent and low value was in acetone solvent. Seeds of Phytolacca latbenia showed variety of therapeutic potential due to the presence of several phytochemical compounds.
Bioactive compounds plants have been used for a long time in our history both as medicine and supplement to support normal physiological functions of the body. Many compounds are added for medicinal purposes when knowledge of their function finds out . Several natural compounds have been assigned to herbs. These medicinally important herbs are the primary source of healthcare and pharmaceuticals products . The story of the use of plants for a medicinal purpose is likely as old as the history of human being. Traditional uses of folk medicine provide key knowledge for the extraction and development of many drugs and activity as well . Extraction and characterization of numbers of bioactive compounds from green factories are a reason to manufacture some highly active drugs . Plant-based secondary metabolites play basic roles in human health and food source as well . Phenolic compounds have biological properties such as anticarcinogen, Antiapoptosis, anti-aging, cardiovascular protection, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-inflammation, and improvement of the endothelial function .
The biologically crude drug is more effective than the isolated compound because of their synergistic effects . For tracking of phytochemicals in plants, a plant is taken for screening to find out the presence of several chemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids,fixed oil, glycosides, and saponins, etc. The activity of secondary metabolites in plants as defense mechanisms against predation by many microorganisms, insects, and herbivores . Herbal medicines are more beneficial in the treatment of various diseases because of less side effects, safety and biocompatibility. Therefore, the public and market demand is so high. That’s why many medicinal plants are facing serious threats either extinction or loss of genetic diversity . Several plants show good antioxidant activity .
Seeds and plant specimen of Phytolacca latbenia (Moq.) Walte were collected from Neelum valley Azad Kashmir in September 2018 and plant was identified with the help of available literature flora of Pakistan . Voucher specimen was deposited at (KUH) Karachi University Herbarium, Centre for Plant Conservation, University of Karachi
Extraction: Powder of Phytolacca Latbenia seeds (10g) was taken in 200 ml of 4 different solvents Acetone, chloroformmethanol and water in each conical flask, and then kept on a
shaker for 48 h. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered through filter
paper (whattman no 1) then dried. Powder of extract was used for
Physicochemical Analysis: Extractive values, ash values,
under various solvents, acid and water solubility percentage were
checked as described by Esha et al. .
Alkaloids and were analyzed by Evans method , proteins
by Million’s method [14,15]. Carbohydrates by Benedict’s test
, Phenolic compounds by Ferric chloride test , Lead
acetate test , Flavonoids by , Glycosids by Borentrager’s
test , Fixed oil by Spot test , Terpenoids by , Saponin
by Foam test .
Phytolacca latbenia (Moq.) Walte found in India, China and
Japan in Pakistan it is found in Hamaliya region from 1500-
3000 m. Root contains a phytolaccin compound which is used
in medicine and poisonous as well  root is customarily used
as a medicine against antibacterial, antiasthmatic, antitussive,
antidote, antifungal, expectorant, laxative, diuretic, and vermifuge
whole plant is toxic, this remedy should be used with prudence
and preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner
. The plant has fascinating chemistry useful against anti-AIDS
drug and potent anti-inflammatory agents, antiviral proteins and
other substances that affect cell division . The leaves and
twigs have a narcotic effect and used as a sedative to convince
sleep. Root oil used for joint pain .
Seeds of Phytolacca latbenia (Moq.) Walte were examined
physicchemically and phytochemically. Our results revealed
that seeds of Phytolacca latbenia (Moq.) Walte is rich in various
bioactive compounds when using different solvents such as
acetone, chloroform, methanol, and water. The results of the
phytochemical screening of phytolacca latbeniaic seeds shown in
table 2 physicochemical results table 1. Majority of compound
detected only in water extract such as alkaloid, Carbohydrates,
protein, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, fixed oil, saponin and
terpenoids as well. These compounds were absent in acetone,
chloroform and methanol extracts In Borntrager’s test glycosides
was absent. The high extractive value was in water solvent 40%
it was lower in chloroform solvent 6%. The ideal solvent for the
extraction of seeds of Phytolacca latbenia (Moq.) Walte is water, in
which best results were achieved [24-28] (Tables 1-2).
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