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*Corresponding author:Mohammad Saeid Kiani, Department of Sports Management, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
How to cite this article:Misbah S, Farjad A, Fasih A. Designing and Formulating A Strategy for The Development of Public Sports. J Phy Fit Treatment
& Sports. 2021; 8(4): 555750. DOI: 10.19080/JPFMTS.2021.08.555750
The aim of this research is, designing and composing the development for strategy of sport for general in Kermanshah province. Statistic society involved all the managers and experts in the organization of sport and youth in Kermanshah. Statistical sampling included 65 experts and managers from Kermanshah province. The used tool for collecting data was Mohaghegh questionnaire which it’s reliability by 5 related professors and its validity by cronbach alpha method (87%) were confirmed. Questionnaire involved 80 question that 40 question was related to strength, weakness point, chance and threats of general sport and 40 question was related to strength, weakness point, chance and threats of athletic sport in Kermanshah, respectively. Data was analysed by descriptive statistic and Friedman test. Also, after analyzing strength, weakness, chances, threats and form of evaluation matrix from internal and external factors of general sport in Kermanshah, became distinct that organization of sport and youth should use defense strategy in the field of general.
Keywords: Organization of sport and youth in Kermanshah; General sport; Strategy composing
Exercise is very important throughout life and it gives people a good time to spend their leisure time and has a great impact on their physical and mental health. Many adverse effects on the social, economic, marital status, heredity and the like are reduced or even eliminated through exercise Gooderz Life in today’s world has taken the quick initiative of man and made him into motor poverty, and this motor poverty has created several physical, psychological, and social problems for him. Exercise as a strategic solution and general exercise as an inexpensive and xhilarating means can solve this problem in a desirable way Honorable Mentioner (Public sport is an attempt to promote sport among all segments of society and has health, social and cultural effects. Today, about 50 sports around the world are recognized as universal sports and range from slow running to the Olympic Games. Some experts consider general sport to be a sport that is generally applicable under any circumstances and does not require specialized facilities and facilities and is implemented for health and leisure activities . In the view of the International Olympic Committee (2003), mass sport is a sport that can be
practiced by all societies regardless of age, sex, race, and social class Javadipour & Samia The World Health Organization (2003) considers public sports to be the least accessible to all in the community, with the aim of promoting such physical and mental well-being Javadipour & Samia. Public exercise pursues goals such as maintaining health, generalizing health, growing, and strengthening physical strength, preparing for defense activities, gaining vitality and vitality, and achieving professional and professional success. These goals are promoted with little change in most human societies and, where necessary, emphasized on one or more goals. With the industrialization of societies and the increase of leisure time, public exercise is pursued for the purpose of entertaining and creating vitality and health Ghalnia et al. By increasing health and vitality in the community, public exercise reduces health care costs and increases the productivity of the workforce, thereby contributing to the overall development of that community. In addition, mass sport in a society has desirable functions such as enhancing empathy, fostering solidarity and social participation to help the process of socialization of individuals Toloo Ashghali et al. Despite widespread evidence of physical activity benefits, reports from around the world still
show a high percentage of inactive people. Therefore, the need
to change behaviors is strongly felt. Since movement, life and
human dynamics, and lack of mobility or mobility deficiency
at any age are associated with life-threatening obesity, muscle
weakness, circulatory diseases, respiratory and mental disorders,
urbanization and modernity through reduced physical activity,
They have a major role in the prevalence of obesity in the world.
It has been well established that obesity is associated with
cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic
diseases, and some types of cancer Javadipour & Samia. Therefore,
the necessity of practicing physical education and regular and
regular exercise in this regard seems to be vital. Nowadays it
is clear that the structure of organizations is so complicated
that they cannot survive without precise planning. Sports
organizations are no exception. Planning in sports organizations
like any other organization is considered the most important task
of management. In fact, planning in a sports organization causes
the goals of all group activities and efforts to be determined and
how to achieve those goals is planned Muzaffar. Many scholars
have examined the importance of strategic planning in various
aspects [2-4] and all agree on the correlation of strategic planning
with the optimal performance of the organization .
Strategic planning looks to the future and focuses on the
foreseeable future, focusing on what the world will look like in the
next 5-10 years, and what percentage of the organization’s future
is based on what is likely to be in the future. Create the future.
Strategic planning plays a key role in the success of organizations
in the field of competition. This type of planning, if properly
formulated, leads to the choice of strategies and leads to the
excellence of the organization if implemented correctly and timely.
The purpose of explaining the strategy is to provide a perspective
for development and to identify specific priorities, programs and
supports for us Quoting Goodarzi et al. Strategic management
can be defined as: the art of science formulating, executing, and
evaluating decisions that enable the organization to achieve
its long-term goals. The stages of strategic management then
comprise three stages: formulating, implementing, and evaluating
strategies Karamer, Gergino. Just like any other system, exercise
requires the formulation of grand goals, strategies, and action
plans to avoid any repetition, wasting, and wasting of financial,
human, physical, and information resources (Javadi). Pour and
Strategic planning is a process of equipping an organization’s
resources and integrating its efforts to achieve long-term goals
and objectives, given the internal and external capabilities and
constraints of each organization. In this process, internal strengths
and weaknesses and opportunities and threats are identified
(SWOT analysis) and according to the mission of the organization,
long-term goals are formulated for achieving these goals, Strategic
options are selected strategies that rely on strengths and seize
opportunities, eliminate weaknesses and avoid threats to ensure
success if properly implemented Alwan.
In this regard, some researches have been carried out that
indicate the necessity and benefits of applying comprehensive
and strategic programs as well as identifying the internal and
external factors of sport organizations. Yar Ahmadi (After
analyzing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in
the championship and public sport, the matrix of the evaluation of
each of the internal and external factors of the city’s general sport
concludes that city sport should be a growth and development
strategy. In his research, Goodarzi et al. concluded that public sport
is in the WT position, in this regard Javadipour and Samia-nia.
They concluded that the country’s public sport is in the strategic
position of SO and that aggressive strategies should be used to
develop it. In their research, they showed that Zanjan’s public
sport position is located in the WT area, forcing the organization
to take a defensive position. The results of Nasirzadeh et al. .
Kerman province is in the strategic position of WT and should use
a defensive strategy Gafouri et al. . identified economic factors
as the most important factor for participation in public sport
and concluded that by strengthening the economic conditions of
society It can be an effective step towards the development of mass
sport. However, in some Western countries the economic factor is
not one of the factors contributing to the spread of public sport. In
this study, cultural factors and infrastructure are the next priority.
 examines public sport in Iran and compares it with some. The
country paid and listed the following obstacles to Iranian public
sport: lack of manpower, lack of budget and financial issues, quality
and quantity of sports facilities and equipment. In this study, two
strategies were proposed to remove barriers: identifying and
employing potential partner organizations and providing more
diversified sports programs for different groups.  in a study
entitled Challenges of Public and Recreational Sports in Iran and
Its Strategies and with 2000 Survey of Public Sports Participants
from 15 Provinces of Iran, Defeated the Most Important Obstacles
to Public and Recreational Sport Opportunities, lack of awareness
and economic problems.  In studying the general situation
in Australia, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, Finland, and Denmark,
he concluded that a regular program for the development and
development of public sport in these countries is over 50 years
old. Sawari et al. concluded in their research that the strategic
position of Khuzestan public sport is in the WT region. In a study
by Sayed Amari and Berdy, explaining strategies for attracting and
increasing citizen participation in public and recreational sports
programs in Urmia, they showed that the strategies outlined
in relation to mass media, places and Sports facilities, sports
authorities and planners, and public sport education play a role
in attracting and enhancing citizen participation in public sport
programs. Therefore, devoting more time to sports programs in
the provincial network, planning of parks and recreational areas
for non-structured activities such as walking and cycling, not
receiving tuition from those who consider sports programs, and
using specialist coaches are some of the strategies that It can
improve public participation in public and recreational sports
programs. The issue of people’s absence from public sport is one of the most important issues that can have unpleasant consequences
in the future. Public sport, despite its growth in recent years, still
lacks the desired status at the community level and requires
special attention and planning for sustainable growth and
development throughout the country. One of the most important
measures to accomplish the mission or mission of sports
organizations including provincial boards and the effectiveness
of their activities is to have a comprehensive and strategic plan
Samia Nia et al. Turning people towards sports and the benefits
of exercise lead officials to consider ways to increase the number
of participants in public sport Khaki et al. Therefore, development
of public sport in different directions should be considered by the
authorities, especially sports planners. Understanding the factors
contributing to the development of public sport in the country can
help planners to overcome the barriers by making them aware
and adopting appropriate measures and planning. Therefore, the
importance of this study is to examine the ways of development of
public sport from the perspective of people who somehow engage
in public sport and to use it from the perspective of improving and
developing public sport.
The method of this study is descriptive, and it is a case
study, and it is an applied research. The statistical population
of this study consisted of instructors, managers and experts
of Kermanshah province Sport and Youth Department and
faculty members of Kermanshah province universities. The
total sample of the study was 65 people who were selected as
the whole population due to the limited statistical population.
Interviews were used to collect information from library
sources and literature review and research background. In this
way, in-person interviews with provincial sports officials were
conducted to identify the most important strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and threats in the province’s championship
sport. After gathering information through interviews as well
as reviewing the literature and background of the research, the
researcher prepared a Likert questionnaire on five values. The
content of the questionnaire contained four parts of strengths,
weaknesses, threats and opportunities that the respondents
had to address in each of the following situations, both in the
present and in the optimal situation. Valuation. After confirming
the validity of the questionnaire by professors and experts and
confirming the reliability of the questionnaire through Cronbach’s
coefficient of 0.84, these questionnaires were distributed among the statistical population of the research and after the reliability
using SPSS software and test. Friedman ranked the province’s
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats as both current
Demographic characteristics analysis showed that most of
the sample had a physical education degree and 61.5% of the
respondents had a bachelor’s degree, 30.8% of the respondents
had a master’s degree and 7.7% of the respondents had a
doctorate degree. 42.2% of the respondents from Kermanshah
Sport and Youth Office, 15.4% from the sport board, 7.7% from
the faculty members University, 15.4% of the respondents were
sports executives of non-sport organizations and 15.4% of the
respondents were managers of sport and youth departments
of Kermanshah province. Also out of 65 people, 27.7% of
respondents with management experience less than 5 years,
23.1% of respondents with management experience between 5
and 10 years, 12.3% of respondents with management experience
of 11-15 years and 9.9%. 36% of the respondents have more
than 15 years of management experience in the field of sports.
Analysis of Comparison of the Mean (Friedman Test) of Public
Exercise Using the Friedman test, we can estimate the size of a
trait in a community that is used in this study to determine the
suitability of features. Kermanshah Provincial Sports Strengths:
According to the results of the data analysis, it can be seen
that among the factors that are considered as the strengths
of Kermanshah province’s public sport activity, the highest
rated and The province’s public sports activities have been
ranked the lowest in all the country’s auspicious occasions.
According to the results of the data analysis, it can be seen that
among the factors that are referred to as threats of public sport
in Kermanshah province, rank of all factors is almost at the same
This section explains what the Kermanshah
Provincial Directorate of Sport and Youth and Sport.
In the external factor’s evaluation matrix, regardless of the
number of factors that cause or threaten the KMCS, Kermanshah
province’s overall scorecard never exceeds 4 and never falls
below one. The average is 2.5 if the number is greater than 2.5
which means that the organization is responding to the factors
that cause the threat and opportunity in an excellent way. In
other words, the organization successfully exploits existing
opportunities in its strategies and minimizes the effect of threat
factors and, if less than 2.5, indicates that the organization has
failed to formulate its strategies. Avoid opportunities that create
opportunities or situations or avoid factors that threaten. As
can be seen in Table 3, the sum of the external matrix scores is
greater than 2.5, which indicates that Kermanshah province has
the opportunity in terms of public sport. In other words, the
opportunities of Kermanshah province’s Department of Youth
and Sports in the area of public sports outweigh its threats.
Kermanshah province’s internal factors assessment matrix is the
result of strategic review of internal factors of the organization.
This matrix evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the
organization’s task units. To perform the internal matrix evaluation,
the same as the external factors matrix, the results are shown in
Table 4. As can be seen in Table 4, the sum of the internal matrix
scores is less than 2.5, which indicates that Kermanshah province
is weak in terms of public sport. In other words, the weaknesses
of Kermanshah province’s Department of Sport and Youth
overpower its strengths in the public sector. Internal and External
Matrices Using Internal and External Factor Evaluation Matrices of
Kermanshah Province. After establishing the internal and external
evaluation matrix, it was determined that the Kermanshah
Provincial Directorate of Youth and Sports should implement
strategies that promote “growth and construction”. In these
circumstances, units should implement strategies that promote the
development and development of public sport, so the Kermanshah
Provincial Youth and Sport Administration has the ultimate
matrix of internal and external evaluation matrix in development
and construction. Use development and growth strategies.
As can be seen in the matrix above, the Kermanshah Department
of Youth and Sports in the Department of Public Sports should
take advantage of the opportunities available to eliminate the
weaknesses in the development of public sport.
Table 4 presents weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and
threats of Kermanshah province’s public sport, as this matrix
has 9 parts, four main elements, four strategies, and one empty
part (top right). The four sections that represent the strategies
are titles WT, ST, WO, SO and after completing the four sections
that have the key elements (sections W, O, S and T) this matrix is
created. An eight-step process has been taken to build the matrix
of threats, opportunities, weaknesses, and strengths of public
sport in the province.
1. Provide a list of the major opportunities that exist in the
external environment of the organization.
2. Provide a list of major threats that exist outside the
3. Provide a list of major internal strengths of the
4. 4- Provide a list of major internal weaknesses of the
5. 5- Compare the internal strengths with the opportunities
available outside the organization and compare the results in the
SO strategies section.
6. 6- Compare internal weaknesses with opportunities
outside the organization and compare the results in the WO
7. 7- Compare the internal strengths with the threats
outside the organization and compare the results in the ST
8. 8- Compare internal weaknesses with threats outside
the organization and compare the results in the WT strategies
This matrix is one of the important tools by which the
researcher compares the information and presents four types of
strategies that are outlined in Table 5.
Mozaffari et al.  in a study comparing the status of Iranian
public sport and comparing it with some selected countries in the
world found that public sport among countries has been enriched
with various incentives, including physical and mental health,
time since 1900. Leisure, Extending Social Relations, Far Getting
started in machine life, returning to nature, increasing efficiency,
paving the way for the growth of championships and practicing
physicians have been considered. Under the umbrella of public
sports, men and women make up 5.92 percent of the population,
which is the lowest of the 23 nations, 88 percent of public sports
have not given any lectures to raise awareness, and 65 percent of
board chairs are educated. Public sports in the country are less
than a bachelor’s degree (151, 152). The findings of this study
show that there are 10 strengths, 10 weaknesses, 9 opportunity
and 10 threat points in Kermanshah province. After analyzing
them in SWOT and group discussion, they were identified. The
strategic location of Kermanshah province’s public sport is in the
WT area [Figure 1]. In the field of public sport, research have been
conducted that have similar results to the strategies of WT, ST, WO,
SO, the most important of which can be found in Yar Ahmadi’s
Strategic Plans (2009), Javadi [12, 13] can be mentioned.
The SWOT matrix places the Kermanshah province
championship sports position in the WT area. David’s model
has transformed these five areas into smaller ones, showing the
provincial championship sport status in Zone 5. The David model
is a similar but more detailed model than the SWOT model. The
matrix divides the inner and outer matrix into 3 major regions
and 9 smaller regions. For sectors located in Homes 1, 2 and 4,
it implements a strategy that promotes growth, builds Homes
3, 5 and 7 with strategies aimed at maintaining the status quo
and Homes 6, 8 and 9 Whose strategy is to harvest or abandon.
According to this model, the strategic location of Kermanshah
province is located in Zone 5 which occupies an intermediate
position and inevitably uses the status quo maintenance strategy
which suggests that if an organization is located in Zone 2 with
areas 5, 3 and 7. Note, Area 3 should cover or eliminate internal
weaknesses using external opportunities, Area 5 should use
strengths and opportunities to mitigate or eliminate weaknesses
and threats, and Area 7 should use Eliminate external threats from
internal strengths. Zone 5 was assigned to Kermanshah Province,
where strengths and opportunities should be used to reduce or
eliminate weaknesses and threats.
Investigation of Kermanshah city’s strategic sport status
showed that this city is in WT position. Organizations that
implement WT strategies are defensive and aim to reduce internal
weaknesses and avoid threats from the external environment. An
organization with internal weaknesses and facing threats to the
outside environment is in a weak position, in fact the purpose
of such an organization is to reduce internal weaknesses and
external threats so that it can gradually adapt to better situations,
where it can use strategies. WO, ST, and especially SO use [14-
26]. Sports officials, especially the General Directorate of Physical
Education and the Public Sports Committees should focus their
plans on addressing the weaknesses and threats of public sport,
as well as the General Directorate of Physical Education and
Committees. Public sports can better respond to their internal
weaknesses and their programs should focus more on addressing
their weaknesses, as strategies for focusing on weaknesses are
more focused on threats given the general management. Physical
education and the public sport boards do not have much control
over them. Other organs should be helped to reduce existing
threats. Following are some suggestions for the development
and development of public sport in Kermanshah province, which
is based on the most important internal and external factors in
1. Collaborate with the mass media, especially radio and
television, in promoting culture and informing the community of
the importance of exercising sports and the inertia and inactivity
harms and encouraging the community to exercise and mobility.
2. The use of specialist training or training alumni in public
3. Creating and building free venues and clubs or giving
sports concessions to offices and organizations to their employees
Strengthening public sport in schools and providing
opportunities for students to participate in public sport.
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