Warning: include_once(../article_type.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/jpfmts/JPFMTS.MS.ID.555734.php on line 199
Warning: include_once(): Failed opening '../article_type.php' for inclusion (include_path='.:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/pear:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/php') in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/jpfmts/JPFMTS.MS.ID.555734.php on line 199
The article is a continuation of the previous article “General Definition of the Concept Sports” . The results of the analysis of the existing definitions of the concept of “sport” indicate the existence of two facets in them - activity and result. Clarification of these categories allowed to formulate a consensual definition of “sport” in the following form. Sport, as a special socio-cultural phenomenon, is a historically determined activity of people aimed at training and participation in competitions and associated with the direct or indirect use of exercise, as well as individual and socially significant results of such activities.
Keywords:Consensus; Concept definition; Sport activity; Physical activity; Theory
Problem statement, analysis of recent researches and publications
In 2018 in the journal “Physical Fitness, Medicine & Treatment in Sport” published an article “General Definition of the Concept Sports”  which aroused wide interest in the scientific community, as evidenced by the materials of the scientific portal ResearchGate. Thus, as of July 29, 2020, more than 400 scientists from 15 countries have reviewed the materials of the article. This article reflects modern ideas about the concept of “sport” and shows that currently there are more than 200 encyclopedic definitions. The results of the analysis conducted in the article also indicate the existence of a clear contradiction. On the one hand, there are several definitions of the term “sport” that differ in form but have a similar substantive basis, and on the other hand, it is impossible to introduce a “consensus” definition of this concept. The latter provision, given its scientific and practical significance, requires a separate and more thorough analysis.
The results of the study and their discussion
The results of the analysis of the definitions of the concept of “sport” given in the previous article [1,2] indicate that in all formulations there are two structural components - activity and result. Activity component in the existing definitions of “sport”. The results of the analysis of the activity component in the existing definitions of the term “sport” indicate a difference in the definition of the scope of this concept. Thus, in the definitions
of the term “sport” presented in the European Sports Charter in the Law of Ukraine “On Physical Culture and Sports” [3-8], the emphasis is on “competitive activity (physical activity) and the process of preparation for it.” This is contradicted by the scope of the activity component in the definition presented in the report of the UN Interagency Task Force which states that sport covers “all forms of physical activity of people.” Analysis of the activity component in the existing definitions of the concept of “sport” also indicates some difference in the interpretation of the meaning of this concept. Thus, in the report of the UN Interdepartmental Task Force , in the European Sports Charter  and in the work of Frenzel  the term “physical activity” is used, and in the Law of Ukraine “On Physical Culture and Sports”  and in works of [5-8]- the term “activity”. These are the key content categories used in the existing definitions of “sport” to explain the process of preparing people for competitions and participating in them. It should be noted that the categories “activity” and “activity” are interrelated. Activity, as a specific form of human attitude to the world around us, is a human activity aimed at meeting personal needs. This means that the category of “activity” covers a wider range of phenomena and processes in which a person participates in the satisfaction of their needs, compared with the category of “physical activity”, because the latter characterizes only physical (physical) human activity, i.e. human activity. associated with its use in the process of preparation and participation in competitions only, to some extent, “own body”. However, in this formulation, the category of “physical activity” does not reflect information about the conditions of physical practice, i.e. about the specific
means used by people in this process. Thus, there is no special
feature that characterizes the sport that distinguishes this type
of “physical activity” of people from others, such as various types
of physical labor, physical activity in everyday life and more. It is
obvious that the main means by which physical activity of people
in the process of preparation for competitions and participation
in them is practically realized is physical exercises. Given the
consensus definition of the activity component of the concept of
“sport”, it is necessary to make a clarifying component, namely,
the phrase “human activity is associated with the use of exercise.”
Summarizing the above considerations, as well as taking into
account the remarks of Schilling  that the definition of “sport”
has changed historically, the activity component in the consensus
definition of “sport” can be presented as follows - “historically
conditioned human activity directly or indirectly related to the use
of physical exercises which is aimed at training and participation
The resulting component in the existing definitions of “sport”.
From the materials presented in the previous article  it is seen
that the resulting component in all definitions of “sport”, except
for the version proposed by Schilling , reflects to a greater
extent individually significant results of people in sports, namely:
providing good physical shape, mental well-being and social
interaction ; expression or improvement of physical and
mental well-being, formation of social relations or achievement of
results in competitions of all levels ; identification and unified
comparison of people’s achievements in physical, intellectual and
other training ; self-assessment through another and another
through oneself ; achievements in competitive activities, as well
as specific interpersonal relationships and behavioral norms that
arise from such activities . Obviously, in such a configuration,
the resulting component of the defined concept of “sport” does
not provide a mutually unambiguous correspondence with its
activity component. This is due to the fact that the “product” of
sports activities of people are not only the above individually
significant results, but also a wide range of socially significant
results, which is mentioned in the work of Schilling  as a “high
public assessment”. Socially significant results of such activities
are manifested, for example, in the formation of a system of
specific values, ideals, norms and patterns of behavior inherent
in both the environment of athletes and fans; social phenomena
and processes that arise as a result of such activities and around
it (the system of competitions as a set of sports spectacles, sports
federations, sports clubs, fan clubs, etc.); sports infrastructure
(stadiums, gyms, etc.); socially significant movements (Sports
for All, Olympic Movement, etc.); system of training of scientificpedagogical
and coaching staff; sports science; special scientific
literature and much more. The above-mentioned contradiction
(discrepancy between the activity and the resulting components)
existing in the above definitions was a kind of obstacle and root
cause that made it impossible to introduce a consensual definition
of “sport”. Given the diversity of people’s performance in sports
(individual and socially significant results), as well as the above
arguments, it will be appropriate to formulate the resulting
component in the consensus definition of “sport” as follows -
“individual and socially significant results of such activities .”
Visit NN (2005) Sociology of sportK Olympic literature247: 52-75.
Law of Ukraine "On Physical Culture and Sports", dated 24.12.1993, №3808-XII. Editorial office as of September 27, 2017.
Matveev LP General theory of sport and its applied aspects (4th), Europe.
(2003) Le Sport Au Service Du Developpement Et De La Paix: Vers La Realization Des objectifs du millenaire pour le developpement. Report on the work of the interinstitutions of the United Nations on sport and service of development and development. 43.
Martin Frenzel (2005) Politics for Darmstadt: Peter Benz and his time. Liebig353-535.
Shilling C (2005) The Body in Culture, Technology and Society249(101).