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*Corresponding author:Lidaysy Molina Torres, University of Camaguey, Department of Sports Education, Faculty of Physical Culture, Cuba
How to cite this article:Lidaysy Molina Torres, Yudisvel Pérez Echarte, Bárbara López Mendoza. Results of the Initial Diagnosis to Improve the Turns in
the Rhythmic Gym Athletes, Category 10-12 Years. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports. 2019; 7(2): 555707. DOI: 10.19080/JPFMTS.2019.07.555707
The work titled results of the initial diagnosis to improve the turns in the athletes of Rhythmic Gymnastics, category 10-12 years of the province Camagüey is developed in the period between September 2018 and June 2019; 9 trainers were chosen who show deficiencies during the training of the turns, inadequately manifesting the application of the requirements of the competition system in the face of difficulty exercises to comply with it through both individual and joint selections. To carry out the research successfully, the conceptual theoretical framework based on the contents of the turns is formed, which is part of the body technique, aspects of the choreography, the balance as a fundamental part of the preparation of the turns, the characteristics of girls of this level, programs, call and score code; A variety of scientific methods were used, with emphasis on documentary review, observation, measurement and survey. A diagnosis was applied that allowed to verify the existing deficiencies from theory and practice.
The sports training at present, demands of a greater preparation of the specialists in charge of the formation of the athletes that transit through the stage of initial basic formation, reason why the search of new methods, procedures and forms is necessary to achieve the preparation necessary for the athlete we want to train, it brings as a consequence greater use of the scientific method in order to improve the preparation of sports.
In this sense, the provincial commission of Rhythmic Gymnastics raises among the technological demands, the need to overcome the trainers of the province of Camagüey and specifically the improvement of the sports practice in athletes of the category 10-12 years, being a series of limitations related to the technical preparation of the turns. Thus, when analyzing the punctuation code described by the international federation Rhythmic gymnastics referring to the turns, it sets the criteria to develop the value of the turns and describes the requirements to increase the base value of the turn, however no methodological orientations are evidenced to make it. In observations made to athletes in training and competitions, survey of coaches, interview judges and referees it was found that:
a) Limited use of the guidelines described in the punctuation code during the application of the contents for the development of the turns in the Gymnasts of the province of Camagüey.
b) It is not evident in the Comprehensive Athlete Preparation Program how to develop the contents of the preparation from the guidelines described in the scoring code.
c) Insufficient mastery of the trainers on the requirements for the application of the scoring code during the training of the turns.
For what is assumed as a Problem Situation: inadequacies in the level of methodological preparation for the training of the turns in gymnasts of the category 10-12 years, of the Camagüey province, given the demands of the competition system.
a) What are the theoretical methodological foundations
that underpin the training of turns in Rhythmic Gymnastics?
b) What is the current status of the turns in the athletes
of the 10-12 year Rhythmic Gymnastics category of the
c) What are the phases and actions that will shape
the overcoming strategy, considering the demands of the
competition system and the individual characteristics of the
d) What is the criterion of the specialists on the elaboration
of a strategy of overcoming for the training of the turns in the
athletes of the category 10-12 years, of Rhythmic Gymnastics
of the municipality of Camagüey?
a) Analysis of the theoretical methodological foundations
that support the training of the turns in Rhythmic Gymnastics.
b) Diagnosis of the current state of the turns in the
athletes of the category 10-12 years of Rhythmic Gymnastics
of the Camagüey municipality.
c) Determination of the phases and actions that will shape
the overcoming strategy, considering the requirements of
the competition system and the individual characteristics of
d) Theoretical assessment of the specialists on the
elaboration of a strategy of overcoming for the training
of the turns in the athletes of the category 10-12 years, of
Rhythmic Gymnastics of the municipality of Camagüey.
To fulfill the tasks that from different directions and
points of view contribute to the achievement of the central
objective, methods of the theoretical and empirical level of
scientific research were selected, in addition to the purpose
of processing the data obtained, mathematical and statistical
methods were used, among Those found:
It allowed to make an assessment on the current training of
gymnasts, category 10-12 years, considering the requirements
of the competition system and determine the actions to improve
the methodological procedure of the trainers.
It was used in the analysis and evolution of the different
conceptions related to the development of the turns.
It facilitated the reasoning about the problem seen from
the particular to the general (inductive) and made it possible
to establish generalizations, going from the general to the
particular (deductive). Empirical.
To the documents of the entity to see the documentation
related to the subject addressed, program of preparation of the
athlete of rhythmic gymnastics, as well as planning documents
to be prepared by the teacher and choreographer
To verify in practice the performance of the teachers during
the technical preparation for the work of the turns in this
category and to know the current state of the girls of 10-12
years who practice rhythmic gymnastics on the fulfillment of
this technical difficulty.
The data that we obtained after applying the observation
guide to different training sessions with the objective of knowing
the methodology used by the coaches and the deficiencies that
the athletes manifest during the technical execution of the turns,
were the following: It was found that there are problems in the
technical execution of the turns, essentially in indicators 2, 4, 5
& 6, (movement of the head, location and correct posture when
performing the execution, heel lift and loss of the equilibrium during execution) because of the three observations made, the
indicators behaved 100% if this was not fulfilled. There are
indicators where there is a lower percentage, among them are
1 (P.I phase of impulse of the leg and arms) & 2 (movement of
the head.) Which does not mean that there are no difficulties
in them. In indicators 3, 7, 8 & 9 (speed in execution, jumps
during execution, displacement during execution and spatial
orientation) had a considerably high percentage, the causes of
low results in the selections may be found here and sets, for loss
of this difficulty.
In this way, the trainers do not evaluate the individualized
work, since they do not verify the effective repetitions of the
turns, which negatively affects their fulfillment through the
In order to know the criteria related to the preparation
exercises for the turns taught at the age of 9 in Rhythmic
Gymnastics, we conducted a survey of the coaches and
choreographers of this sport in the municipality of Camagüey.
a) In question 1, 100% of the trainers agree that the
existing document is the Athlete Preparation Program (PPD)
of Rhythmic Gymnastics, not specific how the work of the
turns should be performed, in addition to no viable exercises
for its developing.
b) In question 2, 100% of the trainers surveyed consider
it necessary to adapt some exercises, since in the PPD there
is only the difficulty that must be carried out, since the
methodology to be used does not appear, nor other elements
that can contribute to compliance with difficulties that
appear in the PPD and in the punctuation code.
c) In question 3, 2 of the 9 coaches responded that
sometimes they work on exercises to improve the technical
execution of the turns and the rest are done according
to their planning, despite the importance this has for the
success of the selection, for 13.3%.
d) In question 4, the coaches agree that work is used as
a medium in the bar (1st and 2nd phase), in the center and
with competitive instruments, for 100%.
e) In question 5, both agree that the most frequent errors
are the elevation of the heel, the loss of balance during
execution and the non-consummation of the degrees of
rotation to complete the difficulty, for 100%.
f) In question 6, the coaches attach vital importance to
the need to have other exercises to improve the compliance
of the turns at these ages, which represents 100%.
In general, the trainers surveyed of Rhythmic Gymnastics of
Camagüey attach great importance to the fulfillment of the turns
for the realization of the selections and sets, sometimes they
work differentiated exercises and use them for the improvement
of this element, although these are very poor for this category.
Their answers do not coincide in question 3, as some think
that the turns should be worked at times or when they play
according to their planning, that indicates that the trainers have
no knowledge about the real work that this implies [1-10].
a) The theoretical budgets that support the research
allowed establishing the methodological bases for the
development of the overcoming strategy, to improve the
training of the turns in the athletes of the studied category.
b) The diagnosis made reflects that the greatest difficulties
are in the elevation of the heel and the loss of balance during
the technical execution, while the fulfillment of the technical
difficulties required by the program and scoring code is not
c) It is considered necessary to develop an overcoming
strategy that provides actions, contents, methods and
procedures that, together with the methodological
indications oriented, contribute to eradicate the deficiencies
detected during the training of the turns
Coaching companion or choreographer, it is proposed that
you fill out the following questionnaire, about the drafts, because
the results that you throw will be reversed in the training of the
Objective: to know your criteria, related to the exercises of
preparation for the turns that are taught at the age of 9 years in