Culturally Historical Origins of Concept “Physical Education”
University of Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture, Ukraine
Submission: September 09, 2019; Published:October 18, 2019
*Corresponding author: Vasily Sutula, University of Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture, Ukraine
How to cite this article:Vasily Sutula.Culturally Historical Origins of Concept “Physical Education”. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports. 2019; 7(1): 555702. DOI: 10.19080/JPFMTS.2019.07.555702
To properly construct a theory that describes the scope of people’s activities related to the use of exercise, it is necessary to use a scientifically sound concept of “physical culture”. The results of the analysis show that the definition of the term “physical culture” made based on the results of the analysis of its cultural and historical origins coincides with the consensus definition of this concept, which testifies to its objectivity and correctness. Therefore, this concept can be used as a basis in the development of a theory that describes the field of activity of people associated with the use of exercise, the name most commonly used in the broad scientific and social practice, the term “physical culture”.
Keywords: Concepts; Physical culture; Sphere of activity; Theory; Culture
The construction of a theory that objectively reveals the patterns of development of the field of activity of people associated with the use of exercise, the name of which in the broad social and scientific practice is most commonly used the term “physical culture”, only possible if using scientifically sound concepts . In a previous post , the concept of “physical culture” was introduced as a result of the cognitive activity of many scientists, that is, it is consensual. Obviously, for the unbiased and unbiased perception of this definition, the cultural and historical origins of the scientific community need to be uncovered.
To highlight the conditions for the emergence of the concept of “physical culture” in the process of cultural and historical evolution of the sphere of activity of people related to the use of exercise.
Consist in the analysis of special literature, which covers various aspects of the development of basic forms of social manifestation of physical culture, as well as the use of a systematic and historiographic approach to the analysis of this problem. The study used Google’s online search service (Google Books Ngram Viewer).
According to the historical materials of the phrase “physical culture” entered widespread social practice in the first half of the 19th century. Its appearance was made possible by the fact that from the eighteenth century the term “culture” (Latin culture, from the verb colure, which translates to cultivation, cultivation, improvement) began to be used, among other things (monoculture, agriculture etc.), to define human activities aimed at their own development. This term was introduced as an independent abstract concept in the late XVII century. the German philosopher S. Pufendorf (1632 -1694), who understood the concept of “culture” as created by man. He noted that the creator of culture is not a specific person, but large groups of people united by common activities, in a sense, “aggregate person”. Thus, in the early 19th century the word “culture” was used to refer to people to characterize their activities and their results in the processing, improvement, development, education of the human essence in all its dimensions.
In the period of occurrence of the phrase “physical culture” its other component, namely the word “physical” was used quite widely in different spheres of human activity to define the natural origin of various phenomena and objects as well as in the family education system to characterize the process of physical (physical) development of children. For example , when discussing family upbringing, stated that “… the first major part of upbringing, that is, caring for the body… the first one is because body training is already needed when other training is needed. has no place yet. This part of education is called by scientists’ physical education. It was this understanding of the concept of “physical” in relation to man (corporeal) that was most widespread in the 19th century. For example, in the same sense, the term “physical” was used by T. Smith in the book “Philosophy of Health: or a statement of the physical and mental constitution of man” , as well as in the study “The  The word “cultura” is first found in the treatise on Mark Portius Cato the Elder (234-149 BC) by De Agri Cultura (c. 160 BC). Almost two centuries later, Mark Tulius Cicero (106-143 BC) used the word in the Tusculan Conversations to characterize the process of educating the human soul “culture animi auten philosophic esf” (cultivation of the soul is philosophy) .
Based on the above analysis of the substantive essence of the concepts of “culture” and “physical” we can conclude that the phrase “physical culture” can be interpreted ambiguously, both narrowly and broadly. In a narrow sense, it means the development, nurture, care, perfection of human physicality. In this case, the word “physical” is used in the translation as “bodily.” Under this condition, the concept of “physical culture” is equivalent to the concept of “bodily culture.” For example, in his article on Principles of Physical Education, Taylor published in the American Homeopathic Journal  noted that people under the term “physical culture” usually understand muscular culture (physical culture). The results of the analysis of the specialized literature indicate that such an interpretation of the concept of “physical culture” has survived to some extent even to this day. For example , noting that the phrase “bodily culture” was quite widespread in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, suggested returning to it, arguing that the activity of people in the field of physical culture transforms the physical origin of a person from naturally this phenomenon in the phenomenon of socio-cultural in the book “Physical Culture, Strength and Body”  noting that in the last decade there has been a surge in books about “body” in society, raising a number of questions, in particular, about the nature of the body, about the relationship between “ the natural “(physical) body and the” constructed “body, between the” natural “body and the” virtual “body. The problem of human physicality is also analyzed in many other contemporary studies, for example [9, 10] and many others].
On the other hand, the concept of “physical culture” can be interpreted not only as “bodily culture”, but also much broader than the development, nurturing, nurturing, perfection of the totality of features of a given person from nature. In this case, the word “physical” is interpreted as “natural”, that is, given to man from nature. These natural attributes include not only the body, but also sensory-motor reactions, feelings, emotions, intelligence, as well as various needs, for example, in health, in physical activity, in cognition of the outside world and several others. These signs, in their totality, form the basis of a person’s spiritual existence. Therefore, the concept of “physical culture” in the broadest sense should be interpreted as the activities of people using physical exercises to educate (develop, nurture, improve) the physical and spiritual essence of man, as well as individual and socially significant results of such activities.
a) The analysis of cultural and historical origins of the concept of “physical culture” showed that it should be interpreted as the activity of people with the use of physical exercises to educate (develop, care, improve) the physical and spiritual essence of man in all its diversity, as well as individual and socially significant results. of such activity
b) The results of the comparative analysis indicate that the definition of the concept of “physical culture” made based on the results of the analysis of its cultural and historical origins coincides with the consensus definition of this concept , which testifies to its objectivity and correctness. Therefore, this concept can be used as a basis in the development of a theory that describes the field of activity of people associated with the use of exercise, the name most commonly used in the broad scientific and social practice, the term “physical culture”.
- Vasil Opanasovych Sutula (2018) Problems and Perspectives of Construction of the Generalized Theory of Physical Culture. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sportsl 3(4): 555620.
- Vasil Opanasovych Sutula (2018) Generalizing the Definition of "Physical Culture". J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports 2(3): 555586.
- Novikovbeing НІ (1783) On the upbringing and instruction of children. For the dissemination of common knowledge and universal well-being 423.
- Thomas Southwood Smith (1835) The Philosophy of Health: Or, an Exposition of the Physical and Mental Constitution of Man 408.
- James Cowles Prichard (1847) Researches into the Physical History of Mankind. 5(6): 570.
- The United States Journal of Homeopathy 1(818): 456-467.
- Bykhovskaya IM (1996) Physical culture as a practical axiology of the human body: methodological bases of problem analysis Physical culture: education, training 19-27.
- Hargreaves J, Vertinsky P (2007) Physical Culture, Power, and the Body; Routledge: London, UK, 280.
- Andrews DL (2008) Kinesiology’s inconvenient truth and the physical cultural studies imperative. Quest 60: 46-63.
- Henning Eichberg, Jerzy Kosiewicz (2016) Body Culture, Play and Identity. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research 72(1): 66-77.