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To properly construct a theory that describes the scope of people’s activities related to the use of exercise, it is necessary to use a scientifically sound concept of “physical culture”. The results of the analysis show that the definition of the term “physical culture” made based on the results of the analysis of its cultural and historical origins coincides with the consensus definition of this concept, which testifies to its objectivity and correctness. Therefore, this concept can be used as a basis in the development of a theory that describes the field of activity of people associated with the use of exercise, the name most commonly used in the broad scientific and social practice, the term “physical culture”.
Keywords: Concepts; Physical culture; Sphere of activity; Theory; Culture
The construction of a theory that objectively reveals the patterns of development of the field of activity of people associated with the use of exercise, the name of which in the broad social and scientific practice is most commonly used the term “physical culture”, only possible if using scientifically sound concepts . In a previous post , the concept of “physical culture” was introduced as a result of the cognitive activity of many scientists, that is, it is consensual. Obviously, for the unbiased and unbiased perception of this definition, the cultural and historical origins of the scientific community need to be uncovered.
To highlight the conditions for the emergence of the concept of “physical culture” in the process of cultural and historical evolution of the sphere of activity of people related to the use of exercise.
Consist in the analysis of special literature, which covers various aspects of the development of basic forms of social manifestation of physical culture, as well as the use of a systematic and historiographic approach to the analysis of this problem. The study used Google’s online search service (Google Books Ngram Viewer).
According to the historical materials of the phrase “physical culture” entered widespread social practice in the first half of the 19th century. Its appearance was made possible by the fact that from the eighteenth century the term “culture” (Latin culture, from the verb colure, which translates to cultivation, cultivation, improvement) began to be used, among other things (monoculture, agriculture etc.), to define human activities aimed at their own development. This term was introduced as an independent abstract concept in the late XVII century. the German philosopher S. Pufendorf (1632 -1694), who understood the concept of “culture” as created by man. He noted that the creator of culture is not a specific person, but large groups of people united by common activities, in a sense, “aggregate person”. Thus, in the early 19th century the word “culture” was used to refer to people to characterize their activities and their results in the processing, improvement, development, education of the human essence in all its dimensions.
In the period of occurrence of the phrase “physical culture” its other component, namely the word “physical” was used quite widely in different spheres of human activity to define the natural origin of various phenomena and objects as well as in the family education system to characterize the process of physical (physical) development of children. For example , when discussing family upbringing, stated that “… the first major part of upbringing, that is, caring for the body… the first one is
because body training is already needed when other training
is needed. has no place yet. This part of education is called by
scientists’ physical education. It was this understanding of the
concept of “physical” in relation to man (corporeal) that was
most widespread in the 19th century. For example, in the same
sense, the term “physical” was used by T. Smith in the book
“Philosophy of Health: or a statement of the physical and mental
constitution of man” , as well as in the study “The  The
word “cultura” is first found in the treatise on Mark Portius Cato
the Elder (234-149 BC) by De Agri Cultura (c. 160 BC). Almost
two centuries later, Mark Tulius Cicero (106-143 BC) used the
word in the Tusculan Conversations to characterize the process
of educating the human soul “culture animi auten philosophic
esf” (cultivation of the soul is philosophy) .
Based on the above analysis of the substantive essence of
the concepts of “culture” and “physical” we can conclude that
the phrase “physical culture” can be interpreted ambiguously,
both narrowly and broadly. In a narrow sense, it means the
development, nurture, care, perfection of human physicality.
In this case, the word “physical” is used in the translation as
“bodily.” Under this condition, the concept of “physical culture” is
equivalent to the concept of “bodily culture.” For example, in his
article on Principles of Physical Education, Taylor published in
the American Homeopathic Journal  noted that people under
the term “physical culture” usually understand muscular culture
(physical culture). The results of the analysis of the specialized
literature indicate that such an interpretation of the concept of
“physical culture” has survived to some extent even to this day.
For example , noting that the phrase “bodily culture” was quite
widespread in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries,
suggested returning to it, arguing that the activity of people in
the field of physical culture transforms the physical origin of
a person from naturally this phenomenon in the phenomenon
of socio-cultural in the book “Physical Culture, Strength and
Body”  noting that in the last decade there has been a surge in
books about “body” in society, raising a number of questions, in
particular, about the nature of the body, about the relationship
between “ the natural “(physical) body and the” constructed
“body, between the” natural “body and the” virtual “body. The
problem of human physicality is also analyzed in many other
contemporary studies, for example [9, 10] and many others].
On the other hand, the concept of “physical culture” can be
interpreted not only as “bodily culture”, but also much broader
than the development, nurturing, nurturing, perfection of the
totality of features of a given person from nature. In this case,
the word “physical” is interpreted as “natural”, that is, given
to man from nature. These natural attributes include not only
the body, but also sensory-motor reactions, feelings, emotions,
intelligence, as well as various needs, for example, in health, in
physical activity, in cognition of the outside world and several
others. These signs, in their totality, form the basis of a person’s
spiritual existence. Therefore, the concept of “physical culture”
in the broadest sense should be interpreted as the activities of
people using physical exercises to educate (develop, nurture,
improve) the physical and spiritual essence of man, as well as
individual and socially significant results of such activities.
a) The analysis of cultural and historical origins of the
concept of “physical culture” showed that it should be
interpreted as the activity of people with the use of physical
exercises to educate (develop, care, improve) the physical
and spiritual essence of man in all its diversity, as well as
individual and socially significant results. of such activity
b) The results of the comparative analysis indicate that the
definition of the concept of “physical culture” made based on
the results of the analysis of its cultural and historical origins
coincides with the consensus definition of this concept ,
which testifies to its objectivity and correctness. Therefore,
this concept can be used as a basis in the development of a
theory that describes the field of activity of people associated
with the use of exercise, the name most commonly used in
the broad scientific and social practice, the term “physical