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Develop of Strategic Position in Private Clubs Through Leverage and Brand Reputation
Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Submission: March 19, 2019; Published: April 01, 2019
*Corresponding author: Rasool Nazari, Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
How to cite this article: Rasool N. Develop of Strategic Position in Private Clubs Through Leverage and Brand Reputation. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports. 2019; 6(2): 555684. DOI:10.19080/JPFMTS.2018.05.555684
The purpose of this study was developed of strategic position in private clubs through leverage and brand reputation. The method of this descriptive study was causal, which was conducted by survey method. The statistical population of this study was based on the statistics provided by the Office of Clubs of the Sports and Youth Department of Isfahan Province. Regarding the uncertainty of the statistical community, the statistical sample was considered to be 384 for quantitative research. Sampling method in this research, stratified random sampling Isfahan city districts. The instrument of measurement in this research was standard questionnaire. These questionnaires, which were set up based on the research objectives. used Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, the reliability coefficient of the brand leverage questionnaire was 0.75, brand reputation was 0.79 and promotion of brand strategic position was 0.75. To analyze the findings of this research, structural equations were used. The results of the research showed that the estimated value of brand leverage influence on brand reputation and promotion of brand strategic position of private clubs was 0.34 and 0.91, respectively. Estimated impact of brand reputation on promotion of strategic position of private club was 0.43, respectively. Therefore, it can be admitted that it is better for club managers to introduce a special value in terms of their clubs’ ability to promote and promote their brand.
Brand strategic management is a suitable strategy for fulfilling stakeholder expectations, so that some of its neglect will cause irreparable burns Kennlley & Toohey . Brand in a highly competitive marketplace today is one of the biggest challenges for any business, so the brand has a strategic value and can be an important part of intangible assets in an organization Bodet & Chanavat . Considering the quality of services and perceived value affect brand equity, brand equity also has an impact on brand preferences and intent to buy customers Ebrahimi . Thus, it seems that building a strong brand in the market is the goal of many organizations, so experts believe that a brand can create value more than common value. Today, brand is not just an efficient tool in the hands of managers, but a brand is a strategic requirement that helps organizations create value for customers and also create sustainable competitive advantage Keller . Hence, the formation and management of a brand is currently a common marketing strategy for brands aimed at increasing consumer commitments and financial performance Sharifi . In line with the importance of strategic thinking in the brand-building Nazari & Ghavami , the impact of brand credibility on the brand’s strategic position has been indirectly emphasized through brand unity.
Nazari & Haddadi  indicated that quality of service affects customers’ satisfaction and loyalty and promotion
of brand strategic position. From a strategic point of view, brand commitment and brand image have the most impact on brand image and the components of brand judgment and the least impact on brand equity has been considered by the customers Nazari & Mokhtari . Bijnaci  points out that the brand image will have a significant impact on brand equity appreciation from the perspective of customers, Therefore, after carefully analyzing stakeholder needs, brand identity should be considered, and after developing a brand-driven strategy, take steps to implement the strategies and enhance the company’s performance in meeting the expectations of the stakeholders Kennlley & Toohey . Therefore, it can be admitted that brand is the most important thing that most marketing strategies focus on and highlight it. Therefore, brand is one of the most important assets of any organization Nazari & Ghavami .
Branding in a highly competitive marketplace today is one of the biggest challenges for any business, and given the sensitivity of the sports clubs, the brand is at the forefront of strategic value because the brand can be an important part of assets the intangible of sports organizations Bodet & Chanavat . The importance of the role of intangible assets in the effectiveness of the organization’s activities, as well as the creation and survival of financial performance of businesses at the level of organizations, companies and various industries is obvious to everyone. Intangible assets are long and unobtrusive assets that are developed and expanded by an organization and are considered
as assets of the company. Hence, it can be admitted that brands
more than all assets are valuable and add to the economic and
strategic value of their owners Raasuli . In the field of sport,
the value of a brand, if used correctly, can bring very high profits
for the sports club Jalayee . One of the important tools for
brand development is leverage. In leverage strategies, managers
with the lowest resources are looking for the most results. As
leading brands always seek out the results so that they can keep
their customers in mind for their products and services. In this
regard, brand leverage with good products and services plays an
important role in the organization’s display. Hence, brands are
seeking such strategies for goods or services Sudaryanto .
Important factors in brand leverage are the values that provide
products and services to our customers. Values that meet the
real needs of customers in a quality manner Sobodh & Srinivas
Brand reputation is more meaningful than keeping customers
happy and reflects the achievement that the company gains over
time and refers to how different audiences evaluate the brand.
Consumers expect the brand to fulfill their demands; demands
made by brand reputation Veloutsou & Moutinho . Today,
sport is a phenomenon that, in the event of optimal exploitation
of it, can be achieved in many categories, including economic,
cultural, and social Abbaspour Tehrani Fard Ahmadi . The
sports industry plays an important role in the development of
the economy in developed countries Jalayee  and direct
economic impact on the production of goods and services of
sports, employment, exports and imports, the creation of places
and facilities, employment, tourism attraction and sponsors and
indirect effects on the promotion of community health Ghaderi
. Investing in the production of sports products and sports
services adds to employment creation on GDP, which will boost
economic growth and social prosperity Sharifian .
The clubs are depicted as social and economic organizations
and they produce goods and services. Private clubs contribute
to social cohesion and economic partnerships through direct
income, such as: job creation and indirect: the marginal costs of
supporters Ebrahimi . In such a situation, managers are more
successful in prioritizing the economic aspect of sport Azadi
. Branding is an intrusion strategy for sports organizations
both at the domestic and international levels and one of its most
important assets Keller . Sports organizations such as clubs
can use their marketing to focus their customers on recognizing
and reinforcing the personality dimensions of the club, and they
will strengthen brand and create value for the club’s brand.
Branding can increase the likelihood of choosing a brand and
brand among different brands, the desire to pay special costs, the
effectiveness of marketing communications and the increasing
popularity among fans and the community Khandan .
In the first step at this stage, the creation of brand identity is
firmly established and constantly in the minds of the consumer,
and then the preference and loyalty of the commitment to the
brand are created Sharifian . Therefore, managers can use
branding strategies. For example, leverage brand credibility
through social responsibility, customer satisfaction, and quality
of service for customers Filo & Funk . Use of the brand as
a confirmatory role for consumer confidence, especially goods
and services, creates leverage and synergy for achieving goals
Sudaryanto . Sport clubs should always seek to promote
brand equity. This is the first to attract new customers and,
moreover, to serve as a reminder for current customers Bahrain
Zadeh & Ziaee . Sport has played a role in the past decades
and is increasingly affecting macroeconomic investment. With
the theme of the sport economy, sports and economic players are
seeking to grow their income sources in sport in order to grow
their complex. In view of the progress, development and popular
appeal of people to sport on the one hand and the availability of
suitable and high capacities in this sector, on the other hand, it
requires accurate knowledge of the status quo and the provision
of a basic and scientific strategy for determining the strategy of
private clubs in the horizon of the medium term and Short-term
As a whole, the goal of private clubs from strategy is to create
an appropriate platform to enhance the quality of service and
customer loyalty. It seems that the brand is not so specific to
private clubs, and not only as an intangible asset, but also as an
asset for which no definite value has been defined. Probably the
achievements of the present research model will determine the
factors affecting the brand’s strategic position. The significance
of the present research reveals that addressing the brand equity
issue, which is one of the main assets of the club, can be of great
importance. It is worth noting that most clubs today are trying
to be introduced as a superior brand, which, on the one hand,
attracts and retains loyal customers and, on the other hand,
leads to the achievement of the desired economic goals. Given
the growing importance of customers to gaining benefits for
organizations, the concept of loyalty of customers today is one
of the factors that has attracted the attention of organizations.
Since the impact of brand leverage (such as trust, commitment,
satisfaction, and service quality) on brand reputation and
strategic position of the club can play a decisive role in the
success of the club. The ability to maintain customers through
brand loyalty and reduce marketing costs has an important role.
Despite the emphasis on the importance of customers in the
service sector, measuring the value of brands and considering
its cognitive aspects is almost a new position in the concept
of service marketing in comparison with product marketing,
which should be considered more. Therefore, considering the
above mentioned and studies, the researcher seeks to answer
the question of whether the brand effect of branding and brand
reputation on promoting the strategic position of private clubs
is fit for?
The current research is applied in terms of its purpose and
in terms of correlation method. Surveying information collection method. In this research, the brand’s leverage researcher (science,
awareness and experience), brand reputation (background,
claims, and customers) and promotion of brand strategic
position (trust and loyalty, quality and quantity of services,
social and communication approach, reputation and advertising,
and price) In the same way and without interference, from the
perspective of private club customers. Based on the inquiry from
the Office of Clubs of the Sports and Youth Department of Isfahan
Province, the number of private club clients is not known, so the
sample size was considered 384. The measurement tool consists
of a questionnaire for brand leveraging, a researcher made
and consists of 10 questions and 2 dimensions. The questions
in this questionnaire relate to the components of knowledge,
knowledge and experience, each of which is calculated separately.
Taliban brand reputation questionnaire (2012) includes the
dimensions of history, claims and customers. The questionnaire
for promotion of strategic brand equity (2009) includes
elements of trust and loyalty, quality and quantity of services,
social and communication approach, reputation and advertising
and price. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire,
they were experts in sport management and experts in the field
of strategic and marketing and confirmed the validity of the
questionnaires. For reliability of the researcher’s questionnaire,
firstly, 30 simple questionnaires were randomly distributed in
the population under study and collected after completing. By
calculating the variance of this sample, based on the Cronbach’s
alpha coefficient, the reliability of brand leverage questionnaire
was 0.75, brand reputation 79 / 0 and the promotion of brand
strategic position is 0.75. To analyze the research data at the level
of inferential statistics, to test the hypotheses of the research, we
first use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to ensure the distribution
of the sample is normal and the Levine test is used to ensure
homogeneity of variance. After establishing these preconditions,
a structural equation modeling test was used to represent the
model to compare the mean of the sample with the hypothetical
mean of society. Statistical methods were performed using SPSS
software version 22 and Amos software at error level of 0.05.
The gender of the subjects studied in this research is shown.
Accordingly, about 74% of the subjects are women and about
26% of men. Six percent of the subjects were people aged 20
to 26 years old, 52 percent in the age group of 27 to 35, and 32
percent at age 36-44 and 10 percent at the age of 45 and above.
Among the research variables, brand reputation variable with
average of 3.78 has the highest average and the promotion of
brand strategic position with average of 3.28 has the lowest
average. To assess the adequacy of the model, the main focus
is on the general fitting indices of the model. p-value of the
model is <0/05 and RMSEA> 050/0. So, the proposed model is
appropriate (Figure 1) & (Table 1).
Considering the high average of all variables of research is
higher than the average level, the implementation of measuring
models on the effect of brand leverage on brand reputation
and promotion of the brand strategic position of private clubs
indicates high fit and confirmation of the conceptual model of
research. Therefore, it is suggested that club managers consider
the approach of providing services in line with the interests and
wishes of customers in order to promote the brand’s position
in the competitive market. The results of this study are partly
consistent with the results of the Nazari & Haddadi research
, the effect of quality of service on customer satisfaction
and loyalty and promotion of the strategic position of the private club brand. Perhaps the reason for this alignment of
the statistical society is the same as in both research uses Has
been. The results of the study showed that the estimation of the
impact of brand leverage on brand reputation of private clubs
is affected. The results of this study are partly consistent with
the achievements of Huang & Sarigollu  as the analysis of
awareness of the factors affecting brand development through
brand equity, combined marketing and market outcomes. Their
results showed that a well-known brand is more likely to be
chosen by customers than an anonymous brand. The wellknown
brand has a better performance in gaining market share
than a less well-known brand. It can be said that the model at the
pre-introduction stage consists of a series of activities, so that a
brand can enter the market when it comes to the market. This
is the key to brand management, so it’s very important. In the
second phase, as the competition is on the rise, brand equity is
important. For example, imitation of brands has made it difficult
for customers to make distinctions. In addition, increasing
customer awareness makes this issue even more critical. In the
third stage, the goal is to create and strengthen the brand. To this
end, if the products manufactured by the company are placed
in different categories, different products that are similar to
each other will enhance each other’s worth. Products that have
similar brands can be intriguing to the customer, which should
be consumed, and this is very good when the brand is entering
the market, as shown below. In explaining these results, it can
be argued that commercial brands, especially those with high
value, can be considered as the most powerful assets of the
organization. This allows organizations to benefit from highlevel
brand loyalty, brand awareness, perceived quality, and
strong linkage with the customer .
The results of the research showed that brand leverage
has an impact on the promotion of the strategic position of the
private club brand. The results of this study are partly consistent
with the model of the Clare brand strategy management process
(2010). In this model, the model considers the process of
strategic management in four stages: identifying and creating
a brand position, designing and implementing brand marketing
programs, measuring and analyzing brand efficiency, brand
growth and sustainability. In explaining these results, it can
be argued that the leverage of the brand and the image of the
company during different periods of time is such that they
occupy a significant amount of the mind of the target audience
group. So that the potential benefits of the business are at its
highest. Brand positioning is very important in order to convince
consumers of the benefits or points of difference that the brand
has over competitors.
The results of the research showed that brand reputation
affects the promotion of the strategic position of private clubs.
The results of this research are partly consistent with the results
of the current research and Qavami Komala , the effect of
brand credibility on Brand Alliance strategy to promote the
brand’s strategic position: A case study of Sepahan Club of
Isfahan. The results of their research showed that the effect
of brand credibility on the strategic position of the brand was
indirectly through brand unity. The results of implementing the
models of measuring the effect of brand credibility on brand
strategy strategies, the effect of brand credibility on promotion
of brand strategic position, and the strategy of unity on the
strategic position of brand represent the high fit of the model and
confirm the conceptual models of research. In explaining these
results, it can be said that in order to increase brand reputation
and promote the strategic position of private clubs it is desirable
to awareness and conceptualization, search and development of
the program, promotion and promotion of brand, management
and brand control, and finally, the result of attention to be
placed. Therefore, they suggested that club managers consider
the approach of providing services in line with the interests and
wishes of customers in order to promote the brand’s position
in a competitive market. In explaining these results, it can be
said that the brand should be looked at as an asset so that in the
first stage, brand image is created; in the second stage, it is to be
understood the brand’s concept and brand; in the third stage,
it is a brand strategy. Which should be tailored to the needs of
customers and the organization’s goals, and the vital features of
the product in order to properly understand the customers of
the organization and its products. The final step is to measure
the return on the value of the brand.
Private brand leverage with elements of knowledge and
knowledge and club brand building experiences as a predictor
variable, as well as brand reputation variables with historical
components, claims, and number of customers alongside the
variable of strategic brand equity of private clubs as a criterion
variable in The present study considered that the components of
trust, quality, approach, reputation and price were considered as
components of promoting the strategic position of private clubs.
In general, it can be admitted that private club executives try to
raise and improve the trust and quality and innovation of their
brand products and services, which increases with the brand
credibility of the customer club, which makes customers use the
service and recommend the products of the club to others. Brand
marketing executives who are at the top of the brand’s alliance
can help to make a positive assessment of brand credibility
through branding by selecting a brand of high-reputable partner.
Hence, considering the results of the research on the role of
the quality of service, the managers of the private clubs always
have the quality cycle in motion. Private club managers will
place more emphasis on the club’s brand and will care about
the interests and aspirations of athletes. Therefore, it’s better
for clubs to provide their services in line with the interests and
wishes of their customers. Club managers consider Brand as the
most powerful club property. Managing factors to leverage their
own will attract a significant amount of the mind of the target
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