Motives and Level of Physical Activity among School Teachers
Azlan Ahmad Kamal1*, Mohd Radzani2, and Arziani Jannah1
1Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor (UiTM) Aras 5 & 7, Malaysia
2Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia
Submission: June 06, 2018; Published: June 18, 2018
*Corresponding author: Azlan Ahmad Kamal, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor (UiTM) Aras 5 & 7, Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, Email:[email protected]
How to cite this article: Azlan A K, Mohd R, Arziani J. Motives and Level of Physical Activity among School Teachers. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports. 2018; 4(3): 555640. DOI:10.19080/JPFMTS.2018.04.555640
Participating in physical activity usually started with one or more reason. This reason then turns into goal to achieve. This is how people derive their motivation to doing physical activity. Ryan  investigate fifteen potential motivation of exercising including fun and enjoyment; improve cardiovascular fitness and ongoing good health. Woolf , the motivations to engage in physical activity were shown by cluster that evaluates six elements. The elements include competence challenge motivation, appearance motivation, and relaxation motivation, satisfaction with fitness, involvement with fitness and involvement with health. These elements than categorize into few cluster that shows the respondent level of motivation. The descriptive analysis was used to determine the frequency and the mean of the data. The study use Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) and International, Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and also Theory of reasoned of action as a based. This research found that, all five motive affect the involvement of the individual in physical activity with the significant of p-value=.000. Besides, the motive that give affect the most towards the individual is social, challenge and fitness. Meanwhile, the motives that preferred by males are fitness and challenge, while for female teacher is appearance and health.
Keywords: Motives; Physical activity; Teachers; Health
According to Gordon, Roopchand-Martin & Hunter (2013), they found that both man and women have a motivation to perform physical activity because of they wanted to manage their weight and also their physical appearance. This shows that there are different motive to perform physical activity by men and women. Recently, in Aljazeera news writing by Stephanie Scawen on 3 Feb 2016 headline is Obesity Statistic Ring Alarm Bells in Malaysia state that 14% of Malaysians were considered obese, to compare with previous time the number of obese people increase rapidly. Type of food and all the facilities provided leading to this situation. For example, people prefer to ride the car even they can use the pedestrian to walk from one to another place. This shows that the level of the motivation to perform any activity that is related to the physical is very low among Malaysian.
According to Scawen (2016) in a developing city, they emphasize more on the road and highway rather than pedestrian or walk path. People here prefer to drive that use their own feet. Hence, this writing wanted to observe the level of the motive to perform physical activity among Malaysian especially teacher. Participating in physical activity usually started with one or more reason. This reason then turns into goal to achieve. This is how people derive their motivation to doing physical activity. Jaffee
(1999) investigate fifteen potential motivation of exercising including fun and enjoyment; improve cardiovascular fitness and ongoing good health.
This study is using probability sampling by using simple random technique. This sampling procedure is use to make sure that all subject have the same probability to be selected as a respondent. This is most appropriate technique because the sample will represent entire teacher population in Malaysia. Since the number or teacher in Malaysia almost half amount from the total of government servant, thus teacher in Sekolah Menengah Seksyen 9, Shah Alam had been selected. This is because, the school located at the urban area which can also represent people at the same area and there are near to get assessing too many facilities. So the probability to perform physical activity is high. The instrument is developing to measure the dependent variables. The instrument is developing to observe each of the elements in motive that might affect the level of the physical activity for the respondent. The evidence from the survey later is used as the central data. The study will be separated into three sections which are demographic data of the respondent, physical activity and motive in physical activity. The questionnaire will be from Markland & Hardy (1992) for the Exercise Motivational Inventory (EMI-2) and from Ajzen &
Fishbein (1967) for the theory that will be the base for the study
and lastly is the item from IPAQ.
Researchers are also using the Ainsworth et al. Compendium
(Med Sci. Sports Med 2000) to obtain average MET scores
for each type of activity. For example; all of the included and
the average MET value for walking were invented. The same
procedure was carried out to moderate intensity activity and
intensity of extreme activities. These values continue to be used
for data analysis for IPAQ: Running = 3.3 Mets, Mets Simple PA
4.0 and PA 8.0 Energy Mets. Using these values, the four ongoing
marks are defined: Walking (minutes / week) = 3.3 minutes*
walk* go days, Medium (minutes / week) = 4.0* simple* medium
intensity activity minutes a day, High- energy (minutes / week)
= 8.0* strong intensity outdoor activities minutes* intensity
day. Total physical activity (minutes / week) = total + Medium
+ powered MET minutes Walking / week scores. MET and Value
Calculation Formula of MET-minutes / week.
Descriptive analysis using SPSS version 19.0 was used to
analyze the mean, frequency and percentage of the demographic
characteristics of the staff of local university. To determine an
overall score of physical activity, every answer will be analyzed
by counting Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET) -min per week.
All responses were summed to get the statistics. Likert Scale
analysis was used to determine the level of physical activity in
all the 42 items, with the lowest score is one (1) and the highest
score is five (5).
Kruskal-Wallis H analysis was conducted to determine
if there is a relationship between the several motives for
involvement with physical activity among teachers (Table 3).
A Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there was a statically
difference in physical activity level between the different motive
which is challenge and fitness motive X2(2) = 7.854, 10.143,
P= 0.020, .006. An inspection of the mean ranks for the group
suggest that the high physical activity respondent had the higher
motive (appearance, social, challenge, fitness and health), with
the low physical activity respondent score the lowest. Thus, type
of motive that effect the physical activity among respondent is
health and fitness motive with p value .020 and .006. The motive
that had been pick the most is challenge and fitness. The findings
showed that teachers do more moderate physical activity in
daily life. As for motives for involvement, there is a difference in
motives for teachers’ involvement in physical activity by gender,
age, but in this study however there is no difference in motives
for teachers’ involvement in physical activity and weight status
based on BMI. In other words, even if they are considered as
overweight, physical activity involvement is not the determinant
to reduce weight.
Similarly, there are no significant relationships between
several motives and physical activity involvement as well. These
include appearance, health and fitness, and challenge although
there was a weak relationship with social factor for physical
activity. This means, keeping their body in shape and for fitness
purpose are not as important as being with friends while
engaging in physical activity among the staff. Participating in
physical activity may establish new friends that share a common
interest and help to develop a support network.
From the IPAQ test, the level of physical of physical activity
among the secondary school teacher had been shown. Based on
the finding from the study that had been made, it was indicates
that the level of the physical activity among secondary school
teacher is moderate. In addition, male’s teacher recorded the
higher level of physical activity compare to female teacher.
The motives that effect physical involvement among teacher
are social, challenge and fitness. Meanwhile, male’s teacher
more motivated to perform physical activity because of the
fitness and challenge motive, while female teacher motivated to
perform physical activity because of the appearance and health
motives. Last but not least, the finding shows male teacher are
more motivated to get engage with physical activity compared
to female teacher. It can be conclude that all of the research
questions are being answered and the entire research objective
had been achieved.