Classification of Mobile Games as a Precondition of the Efficiency of their Use
Naumchuk Volodymyr Ivanovych*
Department of Theoretical Foundations and Methods of Physical Education, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ukraine
Submission: May 11, 2018; Published: May 21, 2018
*Corresponding author: Naumchuk Volodymyr Ivanovych, Department of Theoretical Foundations and Methods of Physical Education, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ukraine, Tel: +380973328330; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Naumchuk V I.Classification of Mobile Games as a Precondition of the Efficiency of their Use.J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports. 2018; 4(1): 555628. DOI: 10.19080/JPFMTS.2018.04.555628
The article reveals the essence of mobile games - an important factor in the formation of a comprehensive and harmoniously developed personality. The problem of classification of mobile games is considered in the context of improving the quality of their pedagogical potential. The proposed conceptual model for the classification of mobile games involves the creation of a certain system of games, consisting on the basis of the consideration of fundamental and common features - the principle of unity of processes of reproduction and creativity and the purpose of mobile games, as well as regular relationships between them.
Keywords: Mobile Games; Classification; Conceptual Model; Efficiency of the Pedagogical Process; Personality.
The game is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that is comprehended by man through experience and recognized at the sensual level. It combines and structures various processes and phenomena, reveals the peculiarities and preferences of a person, simulates and tests any aspects of their life. With this phenomenon, a person knows their inner world and interacts with the surrounding reality. Through the game, a person reveals the origins that allow them to rise above themselves. Organically combining the past and the future, real and imaginative, understandable and incomprehensible, the game manifests the uniqueness and singularity of the individual, provides the necessary conditions for its self-realization.
Today, the scientific search for specialists is aimed at finding out the philosophical and psychological and pedagogical essence of the game, the study of cultural foundations, the properties and qualities of the game phenomenon, the definition of the place of the game in the educational process, the use of its opportunities in various spheres of life of different groups of the population. At the same time, the conditions for improving the gaming activity of the modern generation that provide the integrated realization of the game’s potential are not yet sufficiently studied, and as a result, the ways of using its pedagogical possibilities in the formation of the personality have not been determined. An open question remains about the influence of mobile games on the factors that determine the comprehensive and harmonious development of the individual.
One of the ways of solving this problem is related to the definition and justification of new approaches to the development of the classification of mobile games. This will help to improve the system of interdependent mobile games of one or another intended purpose and allow to better orient in the diversity of gaming objects and help to consciously and effectively use them in the pedagogical process. The purpose of the research is to develop and substantiate the conceptual model of the classification of mobile games in the context of implementing their pedagogical potential.
To achieve this goal, a set of interrelated methods has been used, namely: analysis, synthesis and synthesis of scientific information on the problem of research, educational and methodological literature and Internet sources, pedagogical observations.
The game, as a manifestation of one of the main types of human activity, can be studied from different positions: from the pedagogical-as a means and method of influencing the personality, from psychological -as a means of mental development, the way of mastering social relationships and collective forms of activity, from sociological - as a condition of the emergence and development of communication, people’s relationships, etc. . In our study, mobile games are meaningful activities that aim at achieving specific motor tasks in a rapidly changing environment. Unlike games in general, mobile games
used in the pedagogical process have a clearly set goal and, in
accordance with it, the expected result, which can be justified,
can be determined by the necessary components of this process
and characterized by educational and developmental orientation.
In this case, mobile games are studied not in isolation from other
forms and types of gaming activity, but as an integrative factor
which contains general and universal features of gaming activity
and represents the functionality of the game.
By simulating any game situation or episode, mobile games
require from each participant a comprehensive manifestation
of psychomotor abilities and intelligence. At the same time,
participation in the game leads to an active and proactive stance,
which largely determines the success in achieving the desired
results. After all, the activity of the player acts as one of the
psychological and pedagogical mechanisms of mental, social,
moral, physical, emotional growth of personality, their inclusion
in culture. It is accompanied by an interest, a feeling of pleasure
and enjoyment and is based on them. According to P Lesgaft
, functional satisfaction is the most significant feature of the
game, which significantly distinguishes it from physical exercise.
This is confirmed by the fact that in no other way, a person does
not seek to show their own ability to fail, revealing the available
psychophysical and intellectual resources, as in the game.
The classification of mobile games is considered as a
connecting link in the process of knowledge, which promotes
the proper relationship of pedagogical theory and practice.
It acts as a form of reflection of reality and includes a certain
list of logical operations. At the same time, the development of
the classification allows to clarify the concept and organize the
knowledge, establish connections between individual mobile
games and their groups, carry out quantitative and qualitative
analysis of the game material in the determined directions,
outline the prospect of further research.
The analysis of literary and Internet sources and the
synthesis of the best practices show that today there is no single
universal feature of classification, on the basis of which it is
possible to systematize the entire spectrum of mobile games.
The unifying factor of modern approaches to the classification of
mobile games is their order according to the level of complexity
and content, organization, number and age of the players, the
intensity of tension, the predominant manifestation of physical
qualities and the type of motor activity [3-2].
We proceed from the fact that psychological and pedagogical
substantiation of the essence of mobile games, their systematic
ordering should be determined by the problems of physical
education and training and is correlated with them. In physical
education, this manifestation of gaming activity is seen as a
process that is the basis of the formation and development of
personality. As for physical education, mobile games here serve
as a means and way to achieve the goal beyond its borders .
The need to distinguish between the two aspects of pedagogical
culture - the culture of education and the culture of training, due
to the need for science in the conceptual delimitation of these
relatively synchronously existing phenomena, which allows
deeper and more detailed study of the current state of the
problem under study.
The educational process, in comparison with the pedagogical
process, relies on already existing knowledge and certain
achievements of the individual and, accordingly, begins ontogeny
later. Education is primarily viewed as a dynamic, long-term
process that has no end, and training is often limited in time.
The priority of education is the harmonious, comprehensive,
holistic development of personality potential, first of all,
creativity and constructive and creative abilities in the process
of mastering the achievements of physical education. In its turn,
physical education is aimed, in the majority, at the formation of
human perceptions about the system of norms and values, the
strengthening of the person’s attitudes and the improvement
of their qualities, which is associated with the problems of
the purpose-setting of the pedagogical process. In contrast to
education the free interaction between a person and the outside
world, training is carried out between the subjects of the process,
who are at different levels of competence. Initially, the process
of training is characterized by the overwhelming influence of
someone else’s viewpoint on the pupil, and further, it involves
overcoming the difficult path to the formation in the individual
of the ability to determine their own qualities and opportunities
and act properly.
Developing the classification of mobile games requires the
identification of relevant system-generating features that reflect
the nature and focus of physical education and physical training.
The main issues that always arise when considering the problem
of classification and systematization of mobile games can be
formulated as follows:
a) What signs (or separate ones) determine one or another
type and kind of mobile games that are implemented in the
b) Is any feature taken separately reasonable for the
classification of types and kinds of mobile games?
c) If so, why is this feature put forward as the only selfsufficient
d) If not, what should be the interconnection between
them so that the diversity of types and kinds of mobile games
is a single entity?
In any human activity (study, work, etc.), there are two
interrelated processes-reproduction and creativity. They
characterize the game activity and permeate all its types
and kinds. These processes are dialectically interconnected,
interdependent and act as two separate components. The main element is creativity, and activity at the level of reproduction is
a preparatory stage for it. At the same time, both components
form a single whole, in which the elements of reproduction
and creativity are closely intertwined and are mutually
complementary. At the same time, their ratio varies. In some
cases, such as relay races, where confrontation with an opponent
is mediated and the modes of motor action can be determined by
already known patterns or models, the processes of reproduction
will prevail. In the others, the creative search will dominate. In
particular, the effective solution of tasks in team games requires
the manifestation of creativity, based on previously acquired
knowledge and experience, and achievement of the expected
result is impossible provided that only the old template is used.
However, an indispensable element of the implementation of
any mobile game is the individual knowledge. In this process,
which is always based on the high activity of the participants in
the game, it is possible to distinguish the following determinative
a) The activity of assimilating and applying the finished
information or motor skills in familiar situations
b) Activity, the content of which is the definition of
possible modifications of the already acquired principles,
the diversification and combination of motor activities in
c) Activity aimed at independent discovery of principles,
improvement and integration of motor activities.
In a closed circuit which is always present in the game
activity, reproduction and creativity interpenetrate each other,
acting in a constant unity and interconnection. Reproductive
activity, unlike creative, is characterized by the fact that it always
ends with the creation of a product according to already known
patterns or models. In the course of such activity, a person
who is in conditions of the same type operates the methods
of the previously formed system in public and in their own
experience. The process of finding the necessary solution to
the problem involves reproduction of existing knowledge and
experience, their updating and enrichment, as well as the ability
to operate them and construct new ways to act. Reproductive
actions are creative, on the one hand, as their foundation, and
on the other - as a derivative of the creative. Creativity stems
from reproduction, is the development of the latter and contains
reproductive processes as one of its derivatives . This pattern
is the procedural side of the grouping of mobile games, which can
determine their general typology, namely the following types:
c) Partial search
Consequently, the ratio of processes of reproduction and
creativity, the level of manifestation of the latter, as one of
the priorities of physical education, can serve as a necessary
feature that underlies the classification of mobile games. In
the school, family, social, and gender pedagogy a wide arsenal
of mobile games is used which reflects the universal, national,
ethnographic, geographical, historical, regional values, features
and peculiarities. To study, research a large number of variants,
modifications, strategies of games that meet certain sexage
categories and level of player’s training is quite difficult.
The possibilities of designing and adapting mobile games in
accordance with the conditions of their implementation should
also be taken into consideration: forms of occupation, place
of conducting, number of participants, material and technical
support, weather, etc. At the same time, games differ from one
another not only by a formal model, a set of rules, quantitative
indicators, but above all goals. Even those mobile games which
contain the same rules, the information base has significant
differences, provided that they are used for different purposes.
Actually, the poly functional nature of mobile games contributes
to the multifaceted influence on the development of the
individual, on their creative, motivational, intellectual, physical,
emotional and volitional spheres.
Since physical education is a purposeful process, and the
principle of identifying the types of mobile games, the definition
of their kinds within the framework of this typology must
always be combined with the logical-content side and externally
manifested, including through certain pedagogical purposes,
another necessary feature of the classification of mobile games to
serve their intended purpose. At the first level of grouping mobile
games, the predominant orientation of pedagogical influence is
determined by cognitive and developmental, educational and
training, control and assessment, and recreational and recreative
purposes. At subsequent levels, further distribution is carried out
by refining the goals of using games and their specifics in certain
tasks. Cognitive and developmental goals are first separated
by separate constituents, and then detailed in accordance with
the information field and subject of development: intelligence,
memory, reaction, attention, etc.
Clarifying the group of educational and training purposes
involves the delineation of the relevant areas with the following
specification through the educational aspect of the task of
mastering certain knowledge, the formation of motor skills and
educational component through physical education objectives
and personal qualities. In this case, mobile games often serve
as commonly developing, training, special exercises and,
simultaneously, a method of physical training. Control and
estimating group includes objectives of systematic physical or
athletic training, evaluation of motor talent, physical fitness,
forecasting abilities. Further details of the goals of this group
are due to the choice of the subject of study: certain physical
and personal qualities, motor activities, sides of athletes training, their functional status, and elements of sport selection.
In turn, the recreational and recreative components, which
determine the group of recreational and recreative purposes,
are specified in accordance with the objectives of disease
prevention, treatment, rehabilitation of the human body, as well
as the tasks of recreation in the broadest sense. Here, mobile
games are mostly health-improving and specially improving
exercises, attractions, amusements, sights and other emotional
instruments of pedagogical influence (Figure 1).
This approach to the classification of mobile games makes it
possible to further develop this open system, since, on the one
hand, human creativity is unlimited and can appear in different
manifestations, and on the other hand, pedagogical activity will
always put forward various tasks that can be solved with the
help of mobile games. This arrangement is intended to become a
reference point in the whole variety of mobile games, a source of
information about their pedagogical potential.
Questions of the classification of mobile games require
further scientific and theoretical justification, since optimal
ordering of games as an important and universal tool of
pedagogical influence allows to optimize the process of physical
education, to correctly orientate in the system of means and
methods of physical training. At the same time, the effectiveness
of the practical use of mobile games should be ensured not
only through their appropriate selection in accordance with
the pedagogical conditions and proper organizational and
methodological solution, but also through adapting their
content and structure to a particular contingent and a particular
The proposed conceptual model for the classification of
mobile games involves the creation of a certain system of games,
consisting on the basis of the consideration of fundamental
and common features, the principle of unity of processes of
reproduction and creativity and the purpose of mobile games,
as well as regular relationships between them. In this case,
certain features reflect the pivotal aspects of pedagogical culture
- physical education and physical training, and the links between
the elements of the formed system are established in two
directions: vertically (by the level of creativity) and horizontally
(by the predominant orientation of pedagogical influence).
The first direction reflects the procedural side of the grouping
of mobile games and determines their type. The second one
provides within the general typology the logical ordering of
types of mobile games according to their intended purpose.
Supplementing each other, these directions determine the
integrity of the system, and the corresponding types and kinds
of mobile games are considered as interacting, interconnected