Improving Locomotor Movement Skill Baylearning Approach Play: A Treatment Study Elementary School Student Grade 2 Bekasi
Department of Physical education, Universitas Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya, Indonesia
Submission: April 03, 2018; Published: April 13, 2018
*Corresponding author: Juli Candra, Department of Physical education, Universitas Bhayangkara Jakarta Raya, Indonesia,
How to cite this article: Juli C. Improving Locomotor Movement Skill Baylearning Approach Play: A Treatment Study Elementary School Student Grade 2 Bekasi. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports. 2018; 3(2): 555606. DOI:10.19080/CTOIJ.2018.3.555848
This study is aims to improve locomotor movement skill baylearning approach play a treatment Study elementary school student grade 2 Bekasi. This study employs treatment study method source of research data was the student grade 2 as many as 28 persons. Data collection technique is preliminary test and final test of locomotor movement. Data analysis technique used in this research is descriptive one.
Results of study show that through baylearning approach play from the preliminary test to final test. Average result of the skill from the preliminary test was 1: running skills 64,06, skill to run 53,11, jumping skills 50, evaluator 2: running skills 63, skill to run 53, jumping skills 48, and evaluator 3: running skills 65,70 skill to run 53,39, jumping skills 50,71.
At the final test there was an improvement namely evaluator 1: running skills 89, 88, skill to run 89,14, jumping skills 88,7, evaluator 2: running skills 88,24, skill to run 89,03, jumping skills 87,08, evaluator 3: running skills 90,62, skill to run 88,97, jumping skills 88,92.
Conclusion of this study is that the IMPROVING locomotor movement skill baylearning approach plays a treatment study elementary school student grade 2 Bekasi.
Keywords: Improving locomotor movement skill; Approach play a treatment
Physical Education is a medium to encourage the development of motor skills, physical abilities, knowledge, reasoning, appreciation of values (Attitude-Mental-Emotional-Spiritual-Social) and habituation of healthy lifestyles that lead to stimulate growth and development of a balanced, systematically planned in order achieve national education goals. The purpose of national education in question, stipulated in Law 20 of 2003 on National Education System, Article 3, that “National education functions to develop the ability and form the character and civilization of dignified nation in order to educate the nation’s life, aims for the development of potential learners so that people believe in piety to God Almighty, have noble character, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent and become citizens of democratic and responsible”. The implementation of physical, sports and health education is different and more unique than other forms of education because the learning is carried out through physical activity. But in this case, there are still many misguided parties about physical education. Because this education uses motion or physical activity as a means of learning, it is considered this education is only as a complement because it is intended for the body only, whereas it is clear that the students are humans who are not composed of segments that are disaggregated, but are unity of various parts that are integrated , so that the execution of physical education, sports and health is for students as a whole person in achieving educational goals. As Sukintaka argued that physical education is a process of interaction between learners with the environment, through physical activity that is arranged systematically to the full humanity of Indonesia. Then James Tankudung said an educator and a sports coach should be aware of the essence of education / training, because education / training duty in helping carry out child development. In the developmental activities of the child towards the whole human form, the child needs help from the environment.
Many things that cause lack of interest of children to the subject of penjas, including less interesting presentation of activity Pengas by teachers. This certainly requires a re-examination of the didactics in Teas teaching. It should be realized that the lack of variation in each activity will lead to the boredom of learners that ultimately diminish the interest. Students’ interests are large enough in game sports, so the effort to do is to create and present the Task activity into more playful situations. The process of delivering the Speech material presented in a game or game pattern is an approach that may be more effective, just as children are brought into their playful and playful nature. Through playing the motor aspect can be developed through play activities. One example, can be observed in children who ran chase to catch his friend. At first they are not skilled to run, but by playing chase, then the child is interested to do it and become more skilled. Besides, a teacher is expected to be able to modify the tools and places in school in such a way as to enable the optimal learning process because in general the equipment and space provided by schools for physical education and sports education vary by school. With the creation of several modifications made by elementary school teachers both from equipment and places, it is also expected to create young children who are physically and mentally healthy as well as aware of the importance of exercise and will bring a positive influence in their environment.
The material of physical education of class II in Al Hanief elementary school of Bekasi city includes locomotor motion learning. The locomotor motion material (road, running, and jump) should be packaged in games that appeal to students as well as increase student interest to always move actively in the implementation of road, running and jump material. Based on semester evaluation result one mastery of locomotor motion material (road, run and jump) is less satisfactory because the percentage of road material assessment result that reach 78% success, 60% yield material and 60% jump material. From this result can be seen masi many mistakes of students in doing locomotor motion such as masi no way the way students are wrong as when walking students walk in the state of the foot is opened too wide, the body is too bent, the position of the foot that is less straight, coordination between the hands and feet less good at running and less than maximizing in jumps. Considering these conditions, the researcher conducts discussions with expert team, headmaster and education of Yayasan Al Hanief Foundation, how to improve the implementation of locomotor motion learning materials (roads, runs and jumps) so that the learning implementation can be more interesting and the learning outcomes are increasing. From the results of the discussion can be concluded one way to improve learning outcomes is the game method, so that students are more eager in the implementation of learning, all students can play an active role in carrying out all the material given and the results dipeloreh can be better than the first semester. With the problems described, the researcher is interested to raise the need for learning that can improve learning outcomes and provide learning motivation in locomotor locomotor learning, providing convenience to physical education teachers in delivering the material, so that the learning process can run well and obtain maximum results. To overcome the problem, there needs to be development of locomotor motion learning with play approach pattern to improve locomotor motion learning outcomes (road, run, and jump) in second grade students of SD AL Hanief Kota Bekasi.
Definition of Action Research
Action research is often referred to by other terms such as Practitioner research, insider research, or self-study, all of which basically show a practitioner-based study, either alone or collectively to improve and improve the quality of learning. Stephen Kemmis quoted by Mulyasa puts it: Action research is a form of self-reflective research involving a number of participants (teachers, learners, headmasters and other participants) in a social situation (learning) aiming to prove rationale and justice:
a) The social and learning practices they undertake,
b) Their understanding of the learning practices,
c) The citation and the institutions involved.
Practice action research can be done effectively by each teacher to improve the quality of learning without having to leave the main task of teaching. The practice of action research that is logical and systematic, and honest in its reporting will be an invaluable input to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of learning.
Action Research Model Action research is done in several rounds (cycles). The number of rounds is not determined because the success indicator is measured by the satisfaction of the research on the achievement of the results. Several research measures exist, including:
a) Kurt Lewin’s Action Research Model The kurt lewin model is the first model in action research that was introduced in 1946 and is the basic or basic reference of many other models of action research. The core concept of action research is that in action one action consists of four steps, namely:
b. Action or acting
c. Obserfasi (obserfing)
d. Reflection (reflecting).
b) Model of kemmis and Mc Taggart The model developed by Stephen Kemmis and robbin Mc Taggart is a development of Kurt Lewin, so it looks very close to the model lewin. Kemmis and Mc Taggart make one component of acting (action) and observing (observation). The Kemmis and Mc Taggart models are essentially devices or strands with a single device consisting of four components: planning, action, observation, and reflection whose four are one cycle.
c) Model John Elliott John Elliott’s model was also developed based on Kurt Lewin’s model, but appears to be more detailed and detailed. In John Elliott’s model in one act (acting) consists of several steps or steps of action step 1, action step 2 and action step 3.
d) Model Dave Ebbutt Ebbut agrees with the ideas of Kemmis and Elliot but disagrees on some of Elliot’s interpretations of Kemmis. The spiral form which is the work of Kemmis and MCT Taggart is not the best way to describe the process of reflection - action.
e) Combined Model Sanfortd and Kemmis this model was developed by the directorate of manpower of the Directorate General of Higher Education. Thus, the limitations of action research are as a cyclical and independent reflective controlled investigative process, which has the purpose of improving the system, workings, processes, contents, competencies or situations.
Learning process is one of the factors that influence and play an important role in the formation of personal and individual behavior. There are some notions of learning. According to Syaiful Bahri Djamarah in his book “Learning Psychology” the definition of learning is a series of body and soul activities to obtain a change in behavior as a result of individual experience in interaction with the environment that involves cognitive, affective and psychomotor. The opinion can be understood that learning is a conscious activity undertaken by a person or individual involving physical and spiritual elements to obtain a change in the behavior and experience of life from the interaction with the environment. Menururt Dimyati learning is a complex action and behavior, then learning is only experienced by the students themselves. Opinions can be interpreted that the student is the determinant of whether or not the occurrence of the learning process. The learning process occurs thanks to the students getting something that is around the environment. The existing environment is a state of nature, things, plants, people or things that are used as learning materials, so that the action of learning as a learning behavior that proceeds in the surrounding.
Meanwhile, according to Muhubbin Shah Learning is a processed activity and is a very fundamental element in the implementation of each type and level of education. This means that the success or failure of the achievement of the educational objectives is very dependent on the learning process experienced by students either when he was in school or in the home environment or his own family. Therefore, a correct understanding of the meaning of learning from all aspects, forms and manifestations is absolutely necessary by educators. The opinion can be interpreted that learning is a continuous process activity and is very basic in the implementation of each type and level of education. This means that the success or failure of the achievement of the educational objectives is very much dependent on the learning process that students receive when they are in school or in their home or family environment. Therefore, a correct understanding of the meaning of learning from all aspects, forms, and manifestations is absolutely required by every educator.
A Play Approach
The approach can be interpreted as a point of departure or our perspective of the learning process. Approach in learning is defined as the way that teachers use in carrying out its function is a tool to achieve learning objectives. The learning approach is more procedural that contains certain stages. Teaching and learning activities, the preparation of a strategy is the beginning of the entire teaching and learning process.
Therefore, the strategy has a great influence or impact on student learning outcomes even determine. On the basis of that knowledge and skills in developing teaching and learning strategies are needed teachers or teachers for the achievement of teaching objectives. The game, play or equivalent in English is called “games”, “to play”, “toys” (the noun) is derived from the word ‘main’. In the Indonesian dictionary, the word play means “to do deeds for the purpose of having fun (with certain tools or not); to do what you please, to do what you do.” According to Dini Rosdiani Game is a form of activity that is done by following certain rules commonly called the rules of the game.
While Achmad Paturusi argues that: Games are an important part of the educational process. Physical education teachers and naturalist sports are convinced that play is a direct result of the child’s attention which is the starting point for teaching the desired social behavior. Through child play recognizes the environment, it allows teachers to introduce many essential things about social relationships. So it can be interpreted that a game that, identified with certain rules made for the continuity of the game itself. As well as playing it is a starting point to teach the desired social behavior. Through child play recognizes the environment, it allows teachers to introduce many essential things about social relationships.
Physical education is an educational process that utilizes systematically planned physical activities aimed at developing and enhancing individuals organically, neoromuscularly, perceptually, cognitively and emotionally within the framework of the national education system. Physical education is an important part of the educational process. It means that physical education is not just decoration or ornament attached to school programs as a tool to keep children busy. But physical education is an important part of education. Through well-directed physical education, children will develop useful skills for filling in leisure time, engaging in activities conducive to healthy living, social development and contributing to their physical and mental health. Physical education offers the child joy, it is not appropriate to say physical education is performed solely for the child to rejoice and have fun.
Locomotor Motion (Walking, Running and Jumping) Basically human basic motion is road, run, jump and throw. This form of basic movement has been owned by elementary school students. The basic motion of the road, run and jump is the basic locomotor motion that needs to be developed in elementary school (SD) in addition to other basic motion, locomotor base motion is one of the domains of basic fundamental motion. Fundamental motion is the basic movements that occur as the body grows and the level of maturity in children. Locomotor motion is a type of movement that is characterized by movement of the whole body, in the process of moving places or points of weight from one pivot to another. Locomotor motion types are: walking, running, jumping, hovering and other types of movement marked by a change of venue.
a) Walking naturally everyone is said to be normal if it can run without experiencing difficulty in the activities of daily life. The road is a movement to move in every direction done by anyone and do not know the age. Walking can be interpreted as a shift of bad weight from one foot to the other with one leg fixed in contact with the place where it ran along. Walking is to move forward with the foot step done in such a way, where one of the legs always in contact / contact with the ground
b) Run Running is a continuation of the road with a special characteristic of a time when the body seemed to be released from it’s (the floating phase) of the wrong foot. With characteristic In general the pattern of running initially resembles walking fast. More basic support such as feet shoulder-width apart and sleeves used little or no use. The tip of the toe tends to come out and the child receives the body weight on the foot that treads the leg control a little. As the control and coordination of the development, basic support narrows, the feet are placed one in front of the other, the rhythm of the opposite arm and leg are integrated into the belari, and the weight is received in the heel then to the toe. Quantitatively, the step length keeps increasing as does the speed and flexibility of the running pattern. Patterns of running include starting running, stopping, turning, and walking at various speeds and in different directions.
c) Jump is a movement to lift the body from a point to another point further or taller by sprinting away slowly or slowly by resting one leg and landing with the feet or other limbs with a good balance. Jumping is a movement from one place to another with one leg for repulsion and landing with both feet simultaneously.
The method used in this research is action research (Action Research). Action research is a reflective form of research conducted by participants in social situations to improve the reasoning and fairness of their practice practices and social practices. In this research, the researcher plays the role of planners, executors, and initiators of the problems faced and seek solutions through action. It can be explained that a cycle is followed by a systematic discovery, a reflective process, participatory and determined by the implementer. Action research uses cycles, where each cycle has systematic steps consisting of action planning, execution, observation and reflection.
Result and Discussion
Description of Initial
Conditions of Research (first meeting) before conducting the classroom action research process, the researcher first performs initial observation or initial observation on the implementation of locomotor motion learning that has been done. The results of the study are as follows:
a) The students of class II of AL Hanief Elementary are 28 students, with male students 18 students and 10 female students, seen in the learning process of locomotor movement especially road, run and jump can be said that the learning process in the category is less than once.
b) Students have less attention and motivation in locomotor motion learning process, because the learning given is still conventional and less to make learning modifications that can add student’s motivation at the time of study.
c) At the time of following locomotor motion learning, students still show their own attitude, pay less attention to the explanation given by the teacher, do not implement what is instructed by the teacher. Teacher pemas, masi difficult to find game modifications in improving the quality of better learning and locomotor ability (road, run and jump) students to be better.
d) Initial Activity
i. Explanation of the researcher to the student that the researcher will use them as the subject of research with sit situation in the field.
ii. To absorb students’ presence so that researchers know the number of students sampled.
iii. Providing a basic explanation of locomotor motion learning with game methods that will be done briefly.
iv. Researchers instruct students to stand and March, then warm up and stretch on the first day.
e) Assessment of Preliminary Locomotor Motion Tests
i. Researchers provide an explanation of the initial tests that will be conducted on students.
ii. Athletic lecturers, athletic trainers and sports teachers will be evaluators in every skill assessment of students in locomotor motion (road, jump).
f) End Activities
i. After completion of the initial test proceed with cooling.
ii. Evaluate learning as a whole.
iii. Explain the general picture of learning for the next meeting.
The final Test (Assessment Cycle II)
a) The researcher gives an explanation on the technical implementation of the second cycle test and the researcher prepares all the requirements that support the implementation of the second cycle test.
b) Researchers check the attendance of students who perform tests on cycle II.
c) The researcher gives more motivation to the students to be able to perform maximally on the second cycle test and get better result, to evaluate how far the result of learning has been done
d) Researchers ordered students to stand and march, after which heating
a) After completion do the cycle II test followed by cooling.
b) To evaluate students’ ability.
c) Giving appreciation to students has been able to work well when doing learning and test in cycle II.
Learning locomotor motion by using the method of play against second grade students SD Al Hanief city of Bekasi. Based on the data obtained can be seen the increase of the average score obtained by the students starting from the initial test of the evaluator 1 for walking skills 55.41, skill running 48.07, skill 45.37. 2 evaluators for walking skills 53.64, 50.17 running skills and 47.13 skills. Evaluator 3 grades for walking skill 54,16, skill of running 52,01 and skill 48,52. Skill enhancement occurs in the I cycle 1 evaluator test: for skill path 63,90, skill 63.46 and skill 65.35. 2 evaluators for walking skills 63,54, 65.24 running skills and 64.68 skills. Evaluator 3 for walking skill 62,5, skill racing 66,47 and jump skill 65,35. Significant increase occurred in the final test with the average value of evaluator 1: for walking skill 88,32, skill 85,31 and skill 83,12. evaluator 2: for walking skill 88.34, skill 86.24 and skill 84.32. Result of evaluator 3: for walking skill 87,65, skill 86,21 and skill ability 83,42. This shows that with game method can improve locomotor motion learning outcomes (road, run, and jump) for second grade students of SD AL Hanief, Bekasi city has increased. Application of learning with the game method makes the learning atmosphere becomes more active, interesting, and varied. This is seen from the students’ enthusiasm in following the learning and more excited and the results obtained from locomotor movement learning to be better