Evaluation of Physical Education Faculty of University of Mazandaran
Morteza Dousti1*, Sepideh Delkhah2 and Abolfazl darvishi3
1Assotiate professor, Department of Sports, University of Mazandaran, Iran
2MA of Sport Management, Education and Train of Mazandaran, Iran
3PhD student, Department of Sports, University of Mazandaran, Iran
Submission: February 28, 2018; Published: March 13, 2018
*Corresponding author: M Dousti, Department of Sports, Assistant Professor, University of Mazandara, Iran; Email: M_dostipasha@yahoo.com
How to cite this article: Morteza Dousti, Sepideh Delkhah, Abolfazl darvishi. Evaluation of Physical Education Faculty of University of Mazandaran. J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports. 2018; 2(2): 555583 DOI: 10.19080/JPFMTS.2018.02.555583
CIPP model has provided a comprehensive framework for evaluation in different areas including curriculum. The overall objective of this study is to assess the Physical Education College of Mazandaran University based on (CIPP) model. This study is a Descriptive survey and data collection method is of field survey. All the students and teachers of Physical Education College of Mazandaran University had formed the population of this research, of which there were 418 students and 17 teachers according to the statistics of the education center. Based on Cochran sampling formula 200 students were selected by simple random sampling and also 16 teachers were totally selected. To collect the data, the questionnaire of the assessment of CIPP model by Ali Mohammadi was used. The questionnaire consists of 19 questions. 2 questions about the context factors, 6 questions related to Input factors, 5 questions related to the process factors, and 6 questions related to the product factors. Researcher has used Cronbach's alpha coefficient to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. In this research the questionnaire was given to a group of 30 samples, and its values were obtained as α =0/88. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the normality of the data distribution, and one-sample t-test and binomial test were used to check the major and minor questions. The results showed that from the perspective of both students and professors of the context factors, input, process and product of Physical Education College of Mazandaran University is away from the desired point (3/5). As the result of the research, it is recommended that due to the distance with the desired point in the fog, context factors, input, process and product should revise in order to reach the desired point.
Keywords: (CIPP) Model; Evaluation; Physical Education; Desired point
Higher Education System In terms of organizations and functions should be evaluated occasionally in the course of its evolution. Thus, in line with changes and developments in the organization and educational systems, existence of a tool is needed for evaluating their performance and measuring the rate of achieving their goals. The research provides evaluation of important information about the costs, benefits and problems associated with alternative programs. Assessments are also done to assist managers in making good decisions in relation to manpower and budget planning.
College of Physical Education and Sports Science was established in 2005. This college began its educational activities from 1996 by student recruitment before becoming an independent department in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. The same year, with the admission of 20 male students, they took their first steps towards scientific and educational development in this field. The College obtained the permission of the graduate in the fields of Physical Education and Sport Sciences (pure field) in 2002. And then in 2004 it was also successful in obtaining a license to establish the field of sports physiology in MA. The same year, the office of expansion of higher education in the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, declared its agreement to establish a college, and on Mordad 2005 it officially began its activities by a new organizational structure. In addition, between 2007 and 1389, respectively, it was successful to establish the field of sport management and sport biomechanics in MA. Also in 2011, received a license to establish exercise physiology and sports management fields in PhD.
It is Essential that managers of the organizations have a view of major weaknesses of its system, and also accordingly be aware of the orientation of the developmental strategy, which is based on competitiveness and from outside the organization might have an impact, and through all of these they can resolve their defects. So that this view to be created by the organization itself and has organizational insights with itself, an assessment model is required .
The idea of qualifying the educational sectors has become a major concern of the educational systems. The importance of this matter is to the extent that it can be observed in the families'considerations. Bits and Glayn 2002 on the expression of intense sensitivity of public toward the quality of education system, says: "Nowadays parents before thinking about having a baby, think about this that at which university or school their children will be educated . Evaluation is of the most important measures that could play an important role in qualifying the educational affairs. Evaluation by identifying the present situation, discovering strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and led to the identification of the current situation, and under its shadow, managers can step more effectively in developing their programs.
There are several models for evaluation. One of the most widely used models that are used in educational settings as an evaluation model is CIPP model. This abbreviation stands for the four-word context, input, process and creators of this evaluation model are Daniel Stufflebeam 1971. This model with systemic approach evaluates the context, input, process and product as well as the decision to improve their performance. In the systemic approach, Final goals are not neglected, rather the goals are considered in a very complex set of criteria as a component. System emphasize on the criteria that will increase the long-term survival of the organization. Higher education is one of the most important educational systems, including the key elements of human development in any country in the world. Nowadays, in educational centers, evaluation because of its nature and function is one of the largest and most controversial topics of education that as a determinant of the usefulness and effectiveness of educational programs is used at all higher education institutions in the world. So the evaluation programs in the college of Physical Education Due to the need for training experienced and qualified human resources are of paramount importance . Numerous studies have been conducted using CIPP evaluation model that in this section the most important ones are mentioned.
Qaderi Pasha  in a study entitled "Evaluation of Bachelor of Mathematics at the State University of Tehran (Based on CIPP model)" has been evaluated the three listed stages of the areas of input, process and product of the fields of Bachelor of Mathematics at the State universities in Tehran. In this research the universities of Tehran and teacher training (Hesarak unit) were selected as a non-industrial University and University of Amir Kabir and Khaje Nasir were selected as the University of Technology that the following results were obtained:
a) Tehran University: in the input field is at the desired level, and in the process field is rather desirable.
b) University Teacher training in the input field is rather desirable and in the process field is at the undesirable level.
c) University of Amir Kabir: in the input field is at the desired level, and in the process field is rather desirable.
d) Khaje Nasir University in the input and process field is rather desirable.
e) In total Sample universities: in the input field are at the desired level, and in the process field are rather desirable.
Shams, Golshiri  in a study titled "providing a model to improve children's nutrition and growth promotion based on cipp evaluation model in the city of Isfahan" found that the growth of children after implementation of the model was significantly improved (p <0. 005). Other factors such as mothers' recognition of the growth charts on the growth card, timely referral to health centers to care for the child and the average meals that were given to children, significantly increased after the intervention (in each case p <0. 001). Durrani, Salehi  in a study entitled "Evaluation of the students of Conservatories of working knowledge by using (CIPP) model to propose a framework for improving the quality ofvocational school: Case of Conservatories of District 2 in Tehran " evaluated this educational unit. The results showed that 17 out of the 19 factors were undesirable and 2 factors were rather desirable. Zandvaniyan  in a study entitled "comprehensive evaluation of teacher training centers of Khuzestan province based on the (CIPP) model of evaluation" evaluated these educational units. The results show that the goals of these centers that teacher training in associate degree and is funded by the Ministry of Education, compared to the side goals are completely desirable; geographic areas, socioeconomic and cultural development of teacher training centers are relatively desirable; the input of teacher training centers of the province and processes of structure / organization, teaching / learning, and service / support are relatively desirable; and finally, teacher training centers of the province are completely desirable.
Salehi 2006 for his thesis in the field of educational research evaluated the Conservatories of working knowledge by using the CIPP model, to propose a framework for improving the quality of Conservatories of working knowledge, and in this study, as a case study, he examined Tehran Conservatories of district 2, and found that the situation in three parts: input, process and product of the studied Conservatories are undesirable. Finally, to improve the Quality status, he provided recommendations at the level of each of the factors associated with the input, process and product. Akhlaghi and his colleagues  for implementing the research project for research deputy of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, evaluated the quality of educational programs in higher education by using the cipp model, and in the end they found that the highest level of total desirability, is related to the faculty members in the input area (the area of human resources), and the lowest total desirability is related to the budget in the input area (the area of Financial Resources). So it can be concluded that the continuous evaluation of medical records and MA medical records Education programs, helps to assess the strengths and weaknesses of programs and raise their quality. Pakdaman  in a study entitled "evaluation of the rate of achievement of educational objectives of the Educational Departments of Periodontics and Oral Health based on evaluation model of cipp" showed that in two areas of content and process, there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups. Reviewing of the subheads in the mentioned context, which its achieving was weak, is recommended to improve the educational program.
Ali Mohammadi 2013 in a study entitled "Evaluation of Medical Science University of Rafsanjan, based on a theoretical model of CIPP," evaluated Medical Science University. The final results of the evaluation showed that, the university has a desirable situation. In order to achieve a highly desirable situation, officials of the colleges and universities should further consider the strengthening of the important factors such as revision of curriculum content, teaching methods of teaching, assessment and communication skills to the teachers. Okhovati and his colleagues  in a study titled "Evaluation of Health programs of the field of Bachelor of Health Services Management at the University of Medical Sciences Of Kerman based on the cipp model" found that Health programs of the field of Bachelor of Health Services Management In terms of context, input and product has some limitations and defects. Weaknesses in the curriculum and ambitious goals, which are considered for this field and are shown as Inefficiency of the graduates of this field, make it necessary to review the Bachelor curriculum. Zhang et al.  in a study entitled "Using the context, input, process and product (CIPP) as a comprehensive framework to guide the planning, implementation and evaluation of learning programs services" have used CIPP model. The results showed that Using CIPP method is useful in educational institutions. They also examined the impact of each component in the success of the project and discuss how the model will affect the quality of the project. Lin et al.  examined the impact of applying CIPP model on the learning process of student at the schools of Nepal, and in their study they examined the effect of each component of the mentioned model (context, input, process, and product).
Arsovski , in a study titled "Impact of quality in Business Excellence: A Case Study" that was conducted on 159 companies in Serbia, showed that; Business problem is its excellence. And improvement of business excellence through a relatively small investment in quality is possible. Kahn et al.  in a study entitled "A method for conducting the evaluation of longitudinal program of Health and Human Services of the National Action Plan for the Prevention of Infections", have used the evaluation model of CIPP. The results indicated that the evaluation model of CIPP provides a structure to track the components of a program. Relation examines the components, timing and method of implementation of each component. College of Physical Education of Mazandaran University began its educational activities in 2005 as a college. Over nearly a decade of activity of this college until now, it is not evaluated by a systematic model. What are the weaknesses and strengths of the educational system of the college? How can they be realized? To answer these questions, researchers are trying to use the CIPP model to evaluate this college.
Due to the research objectives; this study is a Descriptive survey and is of applied research and data collection method is of field survey. All the students and teachers of Physical Education College of Mazandaran University had formed the population of this research, of which there were 418 students and 17 teachers according to the statistics of the education center. All the students and teachers of Physical Education College of Mazandaran University had formed the samples of this research that based on Cochran sampling formula 200 students and 16 teachers (5 tuition teachers were among the 16 participants who responded to questions) answered the questions of the questionnaire. Students were selected by simple random sampling and 16 teachers were totally selected. In this research to collect the data on the four factors of context, input, process and product, and criteria for each of them, the questionnaire of the assessment of CIPP model by Ali Mohammadi 2010 was used. The questionnaire consists of 19 questions. 2 questions about the context factors, 6 questions related to Input factors, 5 questions related to the process factors, and 6 questions related to the product factors. Researcher has used Cronbach's alpha coefficient to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. In this research the questionnaire was given to a group of 30 samples, and its values were calculated by SPSS software and obtained as a =0/88 that this amount is statistically significant and is confirmed. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used. In descriptive statistics, frequency, frequency percentage, mean, standard deviation, charts and tables are used. In inferential statistics Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the normality of the data distribution, and one-sample t-test and binomial test were used to check the major and minor questions.
Findings of the research
Table 1 shows that, 43/5% of the samples are men and 56/5% of them are female. Table 2 shows the 80/5 percentage of respondents who are undergraduate student. Table 3 shows that the largest number of respondents is related to the undergraduate students of sport management. Table 4 shows the average age of students of 22/48 years and the average age of teachers of 39/94 years. According to the obtained results (Table 5) and significant levels that each research variable is larger than 0/05, the data of the variables are normal and parametric tests can be used and for each of the variables of the research that is less than 0/05, data distribution is abnormal and nonparametric tests can be used.
H0 =the data come from a normal population
H1 =the data does not come from a normal population
Table 6 shows that other than output variable, the average is less than moderate; other variables had the average above moderate, all variables were far from the desired point of 3/5. Table 7 indicates that from both students and professors perspective, there is a significant difference between the underlying factors of Mazandaran University of Physical Education with the ideal point of (3.5). Table 8 indicates that from both students and professors perspective, there is a significant difference between the input factors of Mazandaran University of Physical Education with the ideal point of (3.5). Table 9 indicates that from both students and professors perspective, there is a significant difference between the process factors of Mazandaran University of Physical Education with the ideal point of (3.5). Table 10 indicates that from both students and professors perspective, there is a significant difference between the output factors of Mazandaran University of Physical Education with the ideal point of (3.5).
Discussion and Conclusion
Each organization has an urgent need to an evaluation system in order to determine the degree of acceptance and quality of their activities, especially in complex and dynamic environments .
Performance Evaluation of Physical Education Faculty of the University of Mazandaran will be the first step toward excellence in the quality and quantity ofthe activities ofteachers and students of the Physical Education Faculty ofthe University of Mazandaran. In a general category Verten and Sanders 1987 have categorized evaluation models into six categories of evaluation approaches: goal-oriented evaluation, management-oriented model, and consumer-based model, a model based on experts' opinion, the model based on advocacy, Naturalistic and participatory model . But some of the most important evaluation models that have been used more in higher education include: Tyler evaluation model, Hammond assessment model, and portfolio evaluation model, CIPP evaluation model, evaluation model of the University of California-Los Angles and the validation model and Heywood 2001. The researchers have applied the CIPP model in this research, due to its comprehensiveness. This model has four criteria. The CIPP model has provided a comprehensive framework for the evaluation of different areas including curriculum. The most important evaluation purpose of the CIPP model is the performance improvement of the program. This model helps the people involved in the curriculum to correct their curriculum during the program and after the program, to collect data. This model is designed to recognize the success of the program in achieving the objectives, in addition to the three stages mentioned above, it refers to 2 types of descriptive and judgment information and 4 key elements of the program which should be assessed and evaluated. Therefore, in this research, the evaluation of Mazandaran University of Physical Education has been based on the CIPP model.
The results of the study indicated that the Faculty of Physical Education is not in a good condition regarding the underlying variable (school environment for the education of the students and their interest to learn science). Therefore, the Faculty of Physical Education has had a modest performance in creating environmental conditions for education and is distant from the ideal point. It seems that if the course material is taught in a social and cultural environment, the intellectual development of learners will be decisive. Therefore, social participation is one of the important conditions for learning. A targeted education environment is an environment that creates different opportunities to interact with a variety of thoughts and ideas. Such an environment allows the student to discover his surroundings in his own way, and these conditions can of course create opportunities for the faculty to find different ways to deal with the students.
The issue of students’ interest to learn science, has been a very important issue in recent years, but according to the researcher, these researches should be conducted from the time of selecting fields in high school; where the students make decisions for their academic future, which group and field to choose in order to meets his educational needs. Therefore the researcher suggests that in order to find more accurate results, he must start before the university and expand the range of assumptions as well, because this subject and such human subjects are of those topics that are not restricted to one or more variables. So you should strive to achieve a higher status. The results of the study indicated that the Faculty of Physical Education is not in a good condition regarding the input variable (students’ abilities, professors’ abilities, educational content, educational facilities, educational goals and curriculum).
Universities and institutions of higher education as the highest centers of deliberation and the scientific community with an established presence of thoughtful thinkers, researchers, scholars and students in academic promotion and to accelerate the movement of thought, belief, political and cultural community has a major role. In this regard, we should try to find college students with good abilities to send to the universities, employ skilled and talented teachers, and continuously update educational content, educational facilities, educational goals and curriculum. The results of the study indicated that the Faculty of Physical Education is not in a good condition regarding the process variable (students’ activities, professors’ activities, academic performance, activities of the personnel and authorities). Mazandaran University of Physical Education should help students who have difficulty in learning to promote learning through conducting education programs and provide a special program for the students who are in a proper level.
Regarding the employees, the main objective of the performance evaluation is the access to accurate information about the performance of employees and the more accurate is this information, the more benefits it has, including:
a) Acceleration in the decision-making process by showing the strengths and weaknesses of various Operations
b) Accountability of the officials,
c) Increasing the feeling of solidarity and loyalty
d) Increasing the leadership power of the managers
e) Better communication between managers and employees
f) Identifying corrective views
g) Orientation of the educational programs.
Although the professors’ activities are distant from the ideal point, it is recommended that the financial mechanism be applied as important tools in policies and codification of education policies. With the allocation of funds to educational departments and delegating the authority in order to use the funds, has created a high incentive in the faculty members to work and try.
The results of the study indicated that the Faculty of Physical Education is not in a good condition regarding the output variable (employment, continuing education, entrepreneurship, scientific production, realization of educational goals and social goals). Most of the world countries deal with the problems of employment, but the multiplicity of factors and anonymity of some factors in third world countries has led to more complex issue. Now, the overall management of the country followed by the application of scientific methods is to identify and control the problematic factors in the field of employment and turning the challenges into opportunities to accelerate the momentum of development. Universities and centers of higher education are charged with the mission such as the production of knowledge, training of experts needed in society, technology development, innovation and creativity, and nowadays, the experts believe that achieving sustainable development can be realized in the light of applying modern knowledge and technology.
Therefore, in order to be on the road of development and avoiding the underdevelopment, some circumstances should be provided that university could train students to apply new technology and foster acceptance of different responsibilities in the organization and the community. In order to discuss about the challenges and opportunities of the higher education in providing needs of skilled manpower required in the labor market, the effective factors are divided into two groups of internal and external groups and then each group is described in detail.
The entrepreneurship characteristics have also been known as the factors affecting the education performance in colleges. Hence, the allocation of a part of the promotion points and the promotion of the faculty members to the entrepreneurship characteristic through considering coefficients to create a relationship between industry and university, relationship with the alumni office, doing projects in order to solve the problems of the country, creation of entrepreneurship unit in each college, supporting the knowledge-based companies of the faculty members which are predicted in the Fifth Development Plan projected bill, are among the approaches that have been proposed. The findings of the present study are inconsistent with the findings of Zendoaniyan , Qaderi Pasha , Ali Mohammadi et al. 2010 and Pakdaman , and are consistent with the findings of Smith 2013. The results of the study indicated that Mazandaran University of Physical Education has a proper distance with the ideal point in all the four criteria of CIPP model. It is recommended that the authority of the university propose revisions to these processes in order to improve their utility [16,17].
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