The change of mentalities in our current society for prevention, physical exercise and nutrition have been increasingly prominent. Therefore, this article has as main objective to relate an adequate intake of micronutrients, mainly of the vitamins of the complex B. And in what way they can play an important role in the functionality of our organism, as well as in the performance during and after the physical exercise.
Keywords:Vitamins; Physical exercise; Complex B vitamins
The balance between diet and regular exercise has been increasingly important to our current society and many studies have proven the importance of these two segments for a healthy life [1,2]. Given the current conjuncture of our society the populations are becoming more and more sedentary and food is increasingly deficient, with recourse mainly to processed foods rich in fats and sugars and poor in macronutrients and micronutrients important for a good body composition . With this advancement of science in showing us that the impact of nutrition combined with good physical fitness plays a key role in the prevention of chronic diseases and management of the conditions of individuals already in the stage of disease  bringing numerous physiological and psychological benefits . It is, therefore, necessary to perceive what food quality this is and how it influences the functionality of our organism .
It is therefore necessary to perceive and evaluate what more specific nutritional factors are then important for homeostasis with physical exercise and with our own well-being . It is estimated that low physical fitness, namely, low cardiorespiratory fitness and low muscle strength and vitamin deficiencies are risk factors for long - term mortality . Therefore, the effectiveness of supplementation of vitamins and minerals, especially of the B complex, is pointed out by several studies, since a diet rich in micronutrients is essential for the proper functioning of the body and brain . Vitamins are important and necessary elements in small quantities, and these are not produced by our body and therefore we need to use external sources to suppress our needs, being the sources of animal or vegetable origin . Each vitamin performs a specific function in our body and its deficiencies cause problems in the function they present, which can be considered as water soluble or liposoluble, those of the
B complex are in the first category and are not stored in our body for what is necessary a daily gain . The vitamin content of the food is quite varied, depending on the plant, the species, the maturation stage, the harvesting period, genetic variations, post-harvest handling, storage conditions, processing and type of preparation .
Group B vitamins are required for various cortical processes involved in metabolism, such as the methylation of homocysteine to methionine (specifically B6, folic acid and B12), which is essential for the synthesis, repair and synthesis of DNA. other methylation reactions in the central nervous system . The B vitamins are B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, niacin and biotin . In the case of vitamin B1 or thiamine, this is the most active form of thiamine pyrophosphate, and can be found in the diet in whole grains, wheat germ, yeast, soybean meal and wheat and pork . Vegetables, fruits, eggs, chicken, mutton and ox are intermediate sources, whereas milk contains relatively low amounts of thiamine . This has an important role in the well-being  and its storage is very little and can occur preferentially in the skeletal muscle, being half of its value absorbed, followed by the liver, heart, kidneys and brain and this storage increases little if large amounts were ingested [6,7]. The role of this vitamin is essential to help cells convert carbohydrates into energy and is necessary for the proper functioning of nerve cells and the brain . Vitamin B1 is the most sensitive to temperature, and losses may occur during the thermal processing of foods and the recommended daily dose varies for men and women, due to differences in size and energy consumption .
Vitamin B2 acts as a redox cofactor in energy-generating metabolism, being essential for the formation of erythrocytes, neo-glycogenesis and regulation of thyroid enzymes, and helps
cells convert carbohydrates into energy, being essential for the
growth of cells, production of red blood cells and the health of
the eyes and skin . This vitamin loses its characteristics when
exposed to light . Riboflavin deficiencies are rare, since they
are related to the metabolism of other vitamins, and a deficiency
occurs when deficiency occurs . The distribution of riboflavin
in foods is wide, but its concentration is low. Among the food
sources, milk and its derivatives, meat and viscera (such as liver
and kidneys), green leafy vegetables (such as cabbage, broccoli,
cabbage and watercress), eggs and peas can be highlighted .
In the case of the vitamin of vitamin B6 we can highlight the
pyridoxine that represents the most stable form of this vitamin
. This in the body is converted to pyridoxal phosphate, which
acts as a coenzyme of about 60 enzymes, most related to the
metabolism of proteins and amino acids. This vitamin plays
an important role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters such
as noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and histamine. It also
participates in amino acid degradation reactions, in which one
of the end products is acetylcoenzyme A, necessary to produce
energy and the synthesis of proteins, lipids and acetylcholine .
The sources of this vitamin are liver, cereal meal, yeast, crude
cane molasses and wheat germ .
Vitamin B12 or cyancobalamin is only found naturally in
foods of animal origin, such as in tissues, eggs and milk [10,11].
Vitamin B12 is an essential component of the proliferation and
cellular differentiation of haematopoiesis and neurological
functions, being essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids,
erythrocytes and myelination [10,11]. Individuals consume
about 2.4 μg of vitamin B12 daily, of which only 50-60% are
absorbed [12,13]. Vitamin B9 or folic acid, participates in the
metabolism of amino acids and the synthesis of nucleic acids,
being essential for the formation of blood cells and are important
for biochemical processes, such as DNA synthesis and repair
The best sources of folic acid are viscera, beans and green
leafy vegetables such as spinach, asparagus and broccoli. Other
examples of foods are avocado, pumpkin, potato, beef, pork,
carrot, cabbage, liver, orange, milk, apple, corn, egg, cheese.
The body absorbs about 100% folic acid from supplements and
fortified foods, but only two thirds of folic acid naturally present
in food [10,11].
Vitamins mainly from B complex have potential ergogenic
effects by adjusting the energetic metabolism of physical activities
and improving exercise performance when supplemented
[14,15]. This supplementation can be diffused in recreational
and competition athletes, and these vitamins are particularly
important in the practice of physical exercise because they are
involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, modulating the
synthesis and degradation of carbohydrates, fats and proteins
. In the case of folic acid, it acts as an essential cofactor in
methylation reactions, including in the formation of vitamin B12,
among other important reactions . Both B complex vitamins
are involved as coenzymes of numerous regulatory enzymes
, assisting cell division, nutrients eeses that are essential for
growth, synthesis of new cells such as red blood cells, and for the
repair of damaged cells and tissues . In the degradation of
amino acids such as valine, isoleucine, methionine and threonine
and fatty acids, these amino acids are converted to propionyl-
CoA and the fatty acids are oxidized to acetyl-CoA and propionyl-
CoA. Acetyl-CoA goes directly into the tricarboxylic acid cycle
. Propionyl-CoA is carboxylated in methyl malonyl-CoA and
finally converted to succinyl-CoA by methyl malonyl-CoA mutase
. This enzyme requires vitamin B12 as a cofactor . Thus,
the state and needs for folic acid and vitamin B12 can be altered
by energy production and reconstruction and repair of muscle
tissue induced by physical activity . The International Sports
Nutrition Society recommends that energy requirements be
scaled to activity level, body mass and mode of exercise 
to ensure that specific individual needs are suppressed .
Achieving micronutrient sufficiency is an important concern for
all athletes, so poorly planned diets can predispose individuals
to micronutrient deficiency, regardless of predilection, which
may have implications for athlete health and performance .
Thiamine, important in energy metabolism , is a
coenzyme of pyruvate dehydrogenase that stimulates the
conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and plays an important role
in the metabolism of carbohydrates . Decreasing thiamine
concentration in cells provides degradation of enzyme activation,
decreases ATP biosynthesis, and causes fatigue . Such a low
level of thiamine in the body can degrade exercise performance
. This vitamin, such as thiamine pyrophosphate, plays a key
role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins . Nearly
half of the thiamine in the body is stored in the muscles and
thiamine is required for the normal functioning of skeletal and
cardiac musculature, so thiamine may be a potentially limiting
nutrient in physical activity . Thiamine, also called vitamin
B1, is an essential micronutrient and physical activity can affect
the vitamin requirement, as well as sex, age and physiological
state . The active form of thiamine serves as a cofactor for
the critical enzymes involved in glucose metabolism . It
functions as a catalyst in the generation of energy through the
decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids and alpha-keto
acids and acts as a coenzyme for transketolase reactions in the
form of thiamine pyrophosphate .
Riboflavin is an essential component of two coenzymes that
participate in the transfer of electrons in energy metabolism,
in amino acid metabolism and in the production of steroid
hormones . Riboflavin may increase the energy availability
during oxidative metabolism . In addition, despite the
remarkable role of thiamine and riboflavin in energy turnover
during exercise, the interaction between exercise and vitamins
is poorly described in the literature .
Vitamin B6 has as its main function the metabolism of proteins
and amino acids. Its most active form is pyridoxal 5’-phosphate,
which is a cofactor for transaminases, decarboxylases and other
enzymes used in the metabolic transformations of amino acids
and nitrogen-containing compounds . During exercise, the
gluconeogenesis process involves the breakdown of amino
acids to provide energy to the muscle and the conversion of
lactic acid to glucose in the liver, several enzymes involved in
this metabolically driven conversion . Another function of
vitamin B6 directly related to energy production during exercise
is the breakdown of muscle glycogen. Vitamin B6 should be
in adequate amounts to release glucose-1-phosphate from
muscle glycogen since this vitamin is directly involved in amino
acid metabolism . The link between protein intake and
vitamin B6 requirements is especially important for athletes
because they generally have a greater need for protein than
sedentary individuals and generally have a higher intake of
this macronutrient because of the higher energy consumption
. Because exercise emphasizes metabolic pathways that
use thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B6, the requirements for
these vitamins may be high in athletes and active individuals.
Theoretically, exercise increases the need for these nutrients due
to decreased absorption, increased turnover, metabolism or loss
of nutrients; biochemical adaptations associated with training;
increased concentrations of mitochondrial enzymes that require
the nutrient as cofactor; and the need for tissue maintenance
and repair .
We conclude that not only should we emphasize an adequate
and balanced intake of macronutrients, but also vitamins and
minerals. As we can see throughout this article the correct
intake mainly of B vitamins may have several implications for
the proper functioning of the body, especially in individuals
who practice physical exercise. Since these vitamins participate
as cofactors, coenzymes, among other important functions in
the reactions that occur either during or after the practice of
physical exercise in various organs and tissues.
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