The Relationship Between Liking of Children and
Job Satisfaction Among Preschool Teachers
Emel Sezici* and Deniz Döne Akkaya
Department of Pediatric Nursing, Kutahya Health Sciences University, Turkey
Submission: October 10, 2019; Published: December 16, 2019
*Corresponding author: Emel Sezici, Kutahya Health Sciences University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Evliya Celebi Central Campus, 43000, Kutahya, Turkey
How to cite this article: Emel Sezici, Deniz Döne Akkaya. The Relationship Between Liking of Children and Job Satisfaction Among Preschool Teachers. 2019; 11(4): 555816.DOI: 10.19080/JOJNHC.2019.11.55581610.19080/JOJNHC.2019.11.555816
This study was conducted to examine the relationship between liking of children and job satisfaction among preschool teachers. This cross-sectional analytical study included 140 teachers who volunteered to participate. Data were collected using a sociodemographic information form, the Barnett Liking of Children Scale (BLOCS), and the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 21 package program was used for statistical analysis and p values less than 0.05 were considered significant. There was a statistically significant difference in the preschool teachers’ job satisfaction scores according to age, marital status, and the facilities in their school (p<0.05). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in liking of children scores based on the teachers’ education level (p<0.05). Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant and positive correlations between liking of children score and overall job satisfaction, intrinsic job satisfaction, and extrinsic job satisfaction (p<0.01). Regression analysis showed that liking of children affected overall, intrinsic, and extrinsic job satisfaction (F=13.175; R²=0.081; F=12.722, R²=0.078; F=10.739, R²=0.065, respectively). The results of this study demonstrate that preschool teachers’ job satisfaction and liking of children are affected by various factors, and that levels of job satisfaction and liking of children are positively correlated.
Keywords: Liking of children Job satisfaction Preschool teacher Child education
Abbrevations: SPSS: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences; BLOCS: Barnet Liking of Children Scale; SD: Standard Deviation
Preschool education aims to support children in all areas of development in order to help them acquire new skills and behaviors and prepare them for primary education . Currently, preschool teachers spend the longest time with children due to the prevalence of working mothers. After their primary caretakers (usually the parents), their preschool teachers is the most important person for a child . Therefore, children’s basic need for love and attention must be met as well as their developmental and educational needs . According to Downing, Ryndak & Clark , necessary qualities of a preschool teacher include being able to interact with children, being patient, attentive, gentle, and flexible, and liking children. Gelbal & Duyan  stated that liking children is the main characteristic of teachers. Brown, Morehead & Smith  also emphasized that liking children is a particularly important condition for people who choose teaching as a career. Teacher performance and job satisfaction are also important for effective preschool education . Job satisfaction has been defined in many ways. Especially about teaching, job satisfaction is defined as a series of emotional responses toward their work and their role that explains how they generally feel at work [8,9]. Altaş & Kuzu  reported that the positive influence of job satisfaction on preschool teachers’ performance was stronger than that of
organizational reassurance or emotional commitment. Massari  emphasized that job satisfaction affects not only work-related attitudes but also teaching quality. Job satisfaction is an important factor that can affect teachers’ productivity and their communication with children. Failure to find job satisfaction may have a detrimental impact on teacher-student rapport and quality of education . It is especially important to investigate job satisfaction among preschool teachers, who interact extensively with their students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between liking of children and job satisfaction in preschool teachers. For this purpose, the following questions were explored in the study:
The purpose of this article is to identify and discuss literature
identifying the use of a MDI-spacer as at least as effective as
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a.Do teachers’ scores on a liking of children scale differ from their descriptive characteristics?
b.Do teachers’ scores on a job satisfaction scale differ from their descriptive characteristics?
c.Is there a statistically significant relationship between teachers’ liking of children scores and job satisfaction scores?
d.Does teachers’ liking of children affect their job satisfaction and it sub-dimensions?
This cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted between
April 1 and May 30, 2019 in 21 kindergartens (7 state, 17 private)
associated with the Ministry of National Education in the city of
The universe of the study comprised the 159 preschool
teachers working in all of the kindergartens of Kutahya Provincial
Directorate of National Education. No sample selection was made
from the universe; all 140 teachers who were in school on the day
of the survey and agreed to participate in the study were included
in the study.
The study was approved by the Kutahya Provincial Directorate
of National Education and the Kutahya Health Sciences University
Rectorate Non-Interventional Clinical Trials Ethics Committee
(approval number 2019/04, dated 19.03.2019). The teachers
provided verbal and written informed consent after being
informed of the purpose of the study and assured that the study
data would remain confidential.
Questionnaires were used to collect data from the teachers
who agreed to participate in the study. The teachers completed
a sociodemographic information form, the Minnesota Job
Satisfaction Scale and the Barnet Liking of Children Scale (BLOCS).
It took approximately 20 minutes.
Sociodemographic Information Form was developed by the
researchers and consists of 7 questions that were answered by the
teachers. Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale was developed by Weiss,
Davis, England, and the Turkish validity and reliability studieswere conducted by Baycan . It has 20 items that are rated on
a Likert-type scale of “very dissatisfied” (1 point), “dissatisfied” (2
points), “can’t decide” (3 points), “satisfied” (4 points), and “very
satisfied” (5 points). Scores range from a minimum of 20 to a
maximum of 100. The intrinsic satisfaction score includes factors
such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement,
creativity, and working conditions, while extrinsic satisfaction
score includes factors such as compensation, job security, and
supervision. The original scale was calculated to have a reliability
coefficient of 0.90 for overall job satisfaction, 0.86 for intrinsic
satisfaction, and 0.80 for extrinsic satisfaction . In this study,
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated as 0.89 for intrinsic
satisfaction, 0.79 for extrinsic satisfaction, and 0.92 for overall
job satisfaction. Barnett Liking of Children Scale (BLOCS) was
developed by Barnett & Sinisi and the Turkish validity and
reliability study was conducted by Duyan & Gelbal . It includes
14 items scored on a 7-point Likert scale from “strongly disagree”
to “strongly agree”. The lowest possible score is 14 and the highest
score is 98, with higher scores indicating more positive attitudes
toward children. Results of the validity and reliability study
indicated a test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.85 and internal
consistency level of 0.92 . In this study, the Cronbach’s alpha
coefficient for total BLOCS score was 0.84.
The study data were analyzed using the SPSS package program.
Using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, we determined that the data
were normally distributed. Number, mean, and standard deviation
were used in descriptive statistical analysis. For categorical
variables, independent-samples t test was used for comparisons
of two groups and one-way ANOVA was used for comparisons
of three or more groups. Pearson correlation analysis was used
to evaluate the relationships between the scales. Simple linear
regression analysis was performed to examine the direction and
effect of the relationship between liking of children score and job
satisfaction overall and within its sub dimensions. P values <0.05
were considered statistically significant in all statistical tests.
The teachers’ mean job satisfaction and liking of children
scores according to descriptive characteristics are shown in
Table 1. The study group included mostly women (95%, n=113),
45.7% (n=64) of the participants were in the 26-35 age group,
51.4% (n=72) were married, 53.6% (n=75) did not have children,
and 70.8% (n=99) had undergraduate degrees. The preschool
teachers’ job satisfaction scores showed significant differences
according to age, school facilities, and marital status (p<0.05).
Mean scores were significantly higher in single teachers (85.50)
compared to married teachers (81.04), teachers who rated their
school’s facilities as advanced (84.28), and teachers 25 years
old or younger (85.38). There were no significant differences
in the preschool teachers’ job satisfaction scores according to
their gender, education level, years of professional experience,
or parental status (p>0.05) (Table 1). BLOCS score differed
significantly according to education level (p<0.05). Mean score
was significantly higher among teachers with associate degrees
(95.70) compared to those who graduated from high school
(86.50) or had undergraduate (90.76) and master’s degrees
(92.70). BLOCS score was not associated with gender, age, marital
status, years of experience, school facilities, or parental status
(p>0.05) (Table 1).
Pearson correlation analysis revealed statistically significant
but weak positive correlations between job satisfaction and liking
of children (r=0.30; p<0.01); intrinsic job satisfaction (r=0.29;
p<0.01), and extrinsic job satisfaction (r=0.27; p<0.01). There
were strong positive correlations between overall job satisfaction
and both job satisfaction sub-dimensions (Table 2). The results
of simple linear regression analysis to determine whether BLOCS
score affects job satisfaction are shown in Table 3. The regression
model generated from the analysis was found to be significant
(F=13.175; p<0.01) and indicated that liking of children affects
job satisfaction (B=0.330; p<0.01). According to the regression
model, liking of children explains 8.1% of job satisfaction (Table
3). Simple linear regression analysis showed that the teachers’
liking of children had a significant effect on their intrinsic job
satisfaction (F=12.722, p<0.01). According to the regression
model, liking of children explains 7.8% of intrinsic job satisfaction
(Table 4). Similarly, the linear regression model for liking of
children and extrinsic satisfaction was significant (F=10.739;
p<0.01) and revealed that liking of children significantly affects
extrinsic job satisfaction (B=0.130; p<0.01). According to the
regression model, 6.5% of extrinsic job satisfaction is explained
by liking of children (Table 5).
In this study, we detected a significant age-based difference
in preschool teachers’ job satisfaction, with the highest job
satisfaction in teachers aged 25 and under (p<0.05). Kılıç et al.
 evaluated job satisfaction and social comparison levels in
primary and secondary school teachers and determined that
teachers in the 20-25 age group had the highest job satisfaction
levels. In another study investigating job satisfaction in male and
female early childhood educators, Şahin & Sak  also found
that female teachers aged 21-25 years had higher job satisfaction
levels. A possible explanation for these findings is that teachers
starting their career at an early age are young and enthusiastic.
Another finding of our study is that preschool teachers who
considered their school facilities to be advanced also reported
higher job satisfaction. Aldridge & Fraser  also emphasized the
high level of job satisfaction among teachers working in schools
with good facilities. Gupta & Gehlawat  analyzed secondary
school teachers’ job satisfaction and motivation in term of certaindemographic variables and reported that teachers working in
schools with good opportunities had higher job satisfaction.
Treputtharat & Tayiam  conducted a study examining the
effects of the school environment on job satisfaction in teachers
working in primary education and determined that teachers
working in schools with adequate physical facilities and advanced
school facilities have higher job satisfaction. In a study by Jiang et
al.  including 206 preschool teacher candidates in Shanghai,
China, school facilities were found to have a positive effect on
job satisfaction. These common findings can be attributed to the
fact that quality education given under better physical conditions
increases teachers’ productivity and job satisfaction.
In our study, preschool teachers’ job satisfaction differed
significantly according to marital status, with single teachers’
showing higher job satisfaction levels than married teachers
(p<0.05) Kılıç et al.  also reported that single teachers were
more satisfied with their jobs than married teachers. Considering
economic conditions, fewer individuals in the household
increases the amount of income per capita. Therefore, single
teachers have a higher welfare level and this may contribute to
greater job satisfaction. In contrast, job satisfaction was not show
significant differences in our study based on the teachers’ gender,
education level, years of experience, or parental status (p>0.05).
Karakaya et al.  also detected no difference in teachers’ job
satisfaction according to gender. Koruklu et al.  emphasized
that job satisfaction of secondary school teachers was not affected
by gender or years of experience. Demirtaş & Alanoğlu  found
that job satisfaction of administrators and teachers did not show
significant differences associated with their gender, the school
they worked in, their branch, or years of professional experience.
However, other investigators have reported contradictory results.
Büyükgöze & Özdemir  reported that male teachers had
higher job satisfaction than female teachers, while a comparative
analysis of job satisfaction among male and female early childhood
teachers by Şahin & Sak  showed that female teachers had
higher job satisfaction than male teachers. The preschool teachers
participating in our study showed significant differences in liking
of children according to their education level. Those with associate
degrees had higher mean liking of children score compared to
those graduated from high school and those with undergraduate
and master’s degrees (p>0.05). In a study conducted by BayramSarıkaya & Özdemir  in teachers working with autistic
children, a significant and positive relationship was observed
between empathic tendency and liking of children, with associate
degree holders having the greatest empathic tendencies. The
teachers’ success in improving themselves in their schools and
the fields in which they studied may be a factor in this difference.
Among the preschool teachers in our study, liking of children
was not associated with gender, age, marital status, years of
experience, school facilities, or parental status (p>0.05). Durualp
& Kaytez  showed that there was no significant relationship
between teachers’ gender and their liking of children.  also
determined that preschool teachers’ age, professional experience,
institution, and marital or parental status did not have a significant
effect on their liking of children. Türk et al.  observed no
statistically significant effect of gender on liking of children
among female and male teachers. All of these findings indicate
that teachers’ attitudes toward children are not affected by their
gender, age, years of experience, school facilities, or whether they
are married or have children of their own. However, some studies
have demonstrated a relationship between these variables and
teachers’ liking of children [2,28]. In a study conducted by Kaynak
et al. , it was found that the gender of preschool teacher
candidates was associated with their liking of children, with
female preschool teachers expressing more positive attitudes
toward children than male preschool teachers. Quaglia et al. 
found that female teachers could establish closer relationships
with children. These discrepancies may be due to the fact that
the studies were conducted in different societies and cultures.
Our evaluation of the relationship between liking of children
and job satisfaction revealed positive correlations between
liking of children and overall, intrinsic, and extrinsic satisfaction.
Longobardi et al.  also found a positive, moderate relationship
between teachers’ overall job satisfaction and their liking of
children. These results are consistent with those of another study
. The fundamental building block of the teaching profession
is liking children. We believe that teachers who enjoy their
profession and like children also have greater job satisfaction.
At the end of the research, it was determined that the
preschool teachers’ job satisfaction scores showed significant
differences. Mean score was significantly higher among single
teachers, teachers who rated their school’s facilities as advanced,
and teachers 25 years old or younger (p<0.05). BLOCS score
differed significantly according to education level. Mean score
was significantly higher among teachers with associate degrees
(p<0.05). BLOCS score was not associated with gender, age, marital
status, years of experience, school facilities, or parental status
(p>0.05) When the relationship between the job satisfaction and
child liking levels of the teachers is analyzed, the positive and
weak level relationship was found between the job satisfactionand child liking levels of the teachers. There were strong positive
correlations between overall job satisfaction and job satisfaction
sub-dimensions (p<0.01). Additionally, at this research, the
regression model was found to be significant and determined that
the liking of children affects job satisfaction and job satisfaction
sub-dimensions (p<0.01). This research is limited to the answers
provided by the preschool teachers working in one province of
Turkey. Thus, the same study can be used with different sample
groups. All the necessary works to better the factors (physical
conditions, work environment, salary, motivation, etc.) that affect
the job satisfaction of the teachers negatively can be conducted
and the students can be directed towards choosing a profession
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