A Different Utilization Area of Olive Oil: Wound Care
Kenan Gümş1 and Merve Yurttaş2*
1Department of Nursing, Amasya University, Turkey
2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Amasya University, Turkey
Submission: September 18, 2017; Published: September 27, 2017
*Corresponding author: Merve Yurttaş, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Amasya University, Turkey, Tel:03582181767; Fax:03582184760; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Kenan Gümüş, Merve Yurttaş. A Different Utilization Area of Olive Oil: Wound Care; JOJ Nurse Health Care. 2017; 4(5): 555647. DOI: 10.19080/JOJNHC.2017.04.555647
Introduction: The fact that natural olive oil which is essential component of Mediterranean diet possess compounds with natural antioxidant properties such as monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, carotenoids, phytosterols, flavanoids, and phenolic compounds both increase its nutritional value and allows its use in medicine.
Method: Literature review was presented extracting from the full texts and summarized articles reached via databases such as “Pub Med, Scopus, Scince Direct, Ulakbim, Google Scholar" by using key words such as olive oil, nutrition, and wound care.
Results: Olive oil is a highly nutritious aromatic oil obtained from ripe olive fruits mechanically without applying any chemical treatment. Olive oil which is stated to have positive effects on health in the literature is also used for treatment purpose all over the world. It is reported that olive oil has been used in ancient times and today’s folk medicine for wound care by utilizing from its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. It is expressed to accelerate healing by stimulating the growth factors when it is applied to wound. The fact that olive oil has antibacterial activity enables olive oil to be an effective agent against bacterial species, like Klebsiella-Pseudomonas, causing wound infections and having antibiotic resistance
Conclusion: There are studies examining the effect of olive oil on wound healing and presenting evidence-based results about this issue. It comes to the forefront in the fields of conventional medicine and folk medicine due to its clinically important properties such as acceleration of wound healing and providing the clean environment required for the wound to heal.
Keywords: Olive oil; Nutrition; Wound care
The olive, a tree of Olea europaea species of Oleaceae family derives its name from the Greek word elaia and Latin word oleaOlive oil is an aromatic oil which is obtained from the olive fruit by physical methods without using any chemical treatment, has its specific smell and can be consumed with its natural state Olive oil is divided into three classes as natural, refined and riviera. Natural extra virgin olive oil is obtained by cold pressing of olives and taste and smell properties are completely preserved. Olive oils obtained with the processes like hot water application after the cold pressing process, removal of unwanted odors and components, reduction of acidity, etc. are involved in the refined and riviera olive oil class . These different forms of olive oil can be used in the nutrition process, and the external use of its natural form is stated to have positive effects on health. The leaves and shoots of olive and the extracts obtained from them have been used as painkillers, blood pressure lowering, balancing of blood glucose and treatment of many diseases such as cancer for many years . The effect of olive oil with high nutritional value inducing antimicrobial, antioxidant wound healing in wound care as one of the traditional treatment methods was mentioned in this study. Olive and olive oil form the basis of the Mediterranean diet . The positive effect of olive oil, which is used as both food and medicine, on nutrition is due to its compounds having monounsaturated fatty acids and natural antioxidant properties (Such as vitamins, carotenoids, aliphatic and triterpenic alcohols, hydrocarbons, phytosterols, flavonoids and phenolic compounds) . Olive oil is valuable in terms of nutrition owing to fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids found in it. In addition, it is also a nutrition which is rich in omega-9 unsaturated fatty acid. Olive oil has at least 30 phenolic compounds in addition to bactericidal activity such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein [7,8]. Phenolic compounds, which are among the basic antioxidants of olive oil, have important effects such as being involved in the formation of taste and smell, having biological activity with positive effect on human health, and showing antimicrobial and antioxidant effect [6,9]. There are studies investigating the effects of phenolic compounds such as oleuropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol found in the structure of olive oil on cancer and cardiovascular diseases [6,10]. In addition, oleuropein inhibits the spore formation of Bacillus cereus. Hydroxytrosol, a metabolite of oleuropein is stated to have strong antimicrobial properties against bacteria species of Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, S. aureus and especially to Klebsiella Pseudomonas which is resistant to antibiotics . In another in vitro study investigating the effect of olive oil on health status, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein were shown to have a strong antimicrobial activity against many bacterial strains that cause intestinal and respiratory tract infections . It has been reported that phenolic acid in olive oil has a protective effect on the cell against the cytotoxic effect of reactive oxygen , and shows anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cell protective effects during wound healing process by inhibiting IL6, IL8 and histamine release because of being richer than flavonoids [8,13]. There are numerous studies in the literature suggesting that the olive oil can be used alone in wound care practices and also with the combination of some additional substances in wound care practices [7,8,14-16]. It is reported that the olive oil is used for therapeutic purpose in wound care all over the world and also used in ancient medicine in the preparation of medicines such as ointment, in the treatment of wound and burns and in inflammation . In 15th century, the famous Turkish physician Ibn-I Sharif wrote in his book "Yadigar" that olive oil was used in the treatment of wounds when it was transformed into ointment by mixing with yellow wax and pine resin . When it comes to Turkish folk medicine, it is seen that the use of olive oil in wound treatment is a frequently used application whose effectiveness is proven [18-20]. In situations such as trauma, crushing, bruise, the olive oil is stated to have a therapeutic effect when the affected region is rubbed with olive oil . From this point of view, olive oil comes into prominence with its therapeutic feature in field of folk medicine. It is also stated that olive oil prevents the formation of burn marks when it is hermetically sealed around burns in burns and acute injuries . In a study investigating the effect of olive oil and sunflower oil on burn wounds, it was reported that the patients taking olive oil orally had a higher serum albumin level than the patients to whom sunflower oil was given, and the duration of wound healing and the length of hospital stay decreased significantly . In another study investigating the efficiency of olive oil on diabetic wounds, it was determined that its topical administration on the wound induced wound healing by increasing fibroblastic activity and collagen production in diabetic wounds . In a study investigating the efficiency of oleuropein, found in olive oil, on skin wounds, oleuropein administered as percutaneous was stated to increase collagen fiber formation and epithelization significantly and it was suggested as an agent that can accelerate the healing of surgical wounds . For ensuring revascularization of skin grafts used for wounds which are hard to heal by themselves for the adaptation to the wound zone, feeding and maintaining in a healthy condition, It was determined that ozonized olive oil administered topically to wound zone improved revascularization by increasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) significantly . It is reported that when pure olive oil is applied by mixing with alkanna tinctoria, it has a positive effect on 2nd degree burns . It was also determined in a previous study that the mixture obtained by mixing honey, beeswax and olive oil was effective on S. aureus and Candida albicans in dermatitis, psoriasis and eczema treatment in infants . Hee Su Kim et al.  applied olive oil topically to the chronic wounds and found that olive oil increased the rate of acute wound healing .
When considering the given characteristics and the study results, it can be asserted that olive oil is an effective agent for wound care
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