Mango can be propagated by both sexual and vegetative methods. Among different vegetative methods of propagation like veneer grafting, epicotyl grafting, and side grafting are being adopted in different parts of India. Factors like varieties, time of grafting, method, growing conditions, defoliation period of scion, age of the scion, leaf and node retention on rootstock etc. influenced the success and survivability of mango grafts. Rainy season grafting in mango shows best results of growth and survival percentage compared to other seasons of grafting. Inarching, veneer grafting, side and wedge grafting methods are most common, but the stone grafting method is easy, cheap and rapid method to produce high quality and quantity in comparatively less time and area. In comparison to different budding and grafting methods, softwood grafting gave maximum success. This method is broadly used in the states like Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala. Higher graft success was obtained during the months of July-August, September and October. The success of grafting depends on the season, age of rootstock and scion, preparation of scion before grafting, cultivars, height of grafting and media used in stone grafting methods. Epicotyl grafting technique plays a vital role in the success of graft union and the advantages is that the germinating seedlings are in juvenile condition and the cells have the potentiality of quick differentiation.
Mangifera indica L. (Mango) is one of the most dominant fruit crops cultivated all over India belongs to family Anacardiaceae. It is national fruit of India and also called the king of fruits. All stages of fruit like immature, mature and ripe, used because of its excellent delicious taste and nutritive value. Young and unripe fruits is acidic in nature and used for culinary, preparing pickle, chutney and amchoor. The ripe fruits used widely and also used for preparing several products like, jams, squashes, jellies, custard powder, syrup, nectars, toffee, baby food etc.
Mango trees cultivated in both tropical and subtropical areas. Moderate rain falls, favours its growing from June to October and rainless dry weather from November onwards. Rains during pre-flowering and flowering period lead to delayed flowering and increase vegetative growth. Flowering season of mango trees is induced by temperature level of climatic condition. Mango is produced throughout the world specially in the countries like Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, Malaya, Shri Lanka, Egypt, South- East Africa, Israel, Tropical Australia, USA (Hawaii and Florida). In India, mango is cultivated in almost all the states,
while UP, MP, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh are the leading states in area and production. Other states where mango cultivation exists include Orissa, West Bengal, Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Punjab. Districts of Uttar Pradesh, like Lucknow and Amroha (City of Mango) are very famous in mango production and producing lots of varieties of mango.
The farmers generally use seed for mango propagation. Mango can be propagated by both sexual and asexual (vegetative) methods. Hartmann et al.  reported that varietal purity can’t be maintained by growing plants from its seed. These plants take decade for fruiting and the canopy covers larger area. While the vegetative propagation is best because it retains the characteristics of the mother plant, and get flower and fruit earlier, to remain comparatively smaller with the benefit of more plants accommodation per unit area. It yields earlier and much higher economic returns. In India, the grafting techniques was practiced since ancient times. But different methods of propagation like veneer grafting, epicotyl grafting, and side grafting are being adopted in different parts of India. However,
stionic relationship is an important factor for successful graft
Singh et al.  concluded that success rate of veneer grafting
in open conditions was higher in July to August. Therefore, it is
very necessary to evaluate time on success of veneer grafting
in mango. Bhan et al.  standardized the epicotyl grafting in
mango at the Horticulture Research Station, Krishnanagar and
they claimed about 75-80 % success by using germinating seed
as a rootstock and semi-mature terminal shoot as a scion. In
epicotyls grafting young seedlings are used as rootstock for
Epicotyl grafting was successfully used as an efficient,
economic and rapid method for the propagation of mango
[3-4]. Side grafting, also known as Nakamura method, was
formerly popular [5-6]. Mild weather condition in the absence
of strong winds, intense heat and heavy rain is highly effective
for this method , and success has also varied (50-100%) with
different cultivars . In India side grafting is generally practiced
in humid, coastal areas.
Singh & Shrivastava  reported that the best results (84%
take) were obtained with inarching and soft wood grafting both
in July.  reported that the best month for grafting were June,
July and August, during which 100% take could be expected. 
obtained in trials with the cv. Dashehari, softwood grafting on
20th August gave the highest grafting success (90%) compared
with 67% in July and 70% in late September.
Khalil et al.  observed that the time of grafting was
found best between May and September.  recorded 92%
success of veneer grafting during the rainy season. Patil et al.
 at Dharwad observed that when stone grafting in mango
done during first week of July using 7 to 10-day old seedling
as rootstock, Mulgoa gave 100 per cent successful graft while
Alphonso, Pairi and Totapari, recorded 40.00, 53.33 and 53.33
per cent grafting success, respectively . Observed that the
highest average sprout length was recorded under June grafting
and survival after 180 days was highest in August grafting.
Kumar et al.  conducted an experiment at Ranchi to
study the effect of stone grafting in mango and observed the best
growth and survival (79%) of grafted plants in the treatment
with used scions, which had been defoliated for 8 days and stored
for 3 days before grafting in the rainy season. Nayak & Sen 
reported that the percentage of success was also greater 78.8%
when it was done in July- August compared with 75% in January-
March. However, overall rate of growth was greater in winter
grafted plants. Jacob et al.  reported that the higher graft
success (90%) was obtained during the months of July-August,
September and October. Pandey and Singh at Varanasi observed
the greatest sprouting of scion (76.33%) and subsequent
survival (40.22%) of stone-grafted mango cv. Amrapali when
grafted on 16th August. Prasanth et al.  studied epicotyl
grafting in mango and reported that grafting in the first fortnight
of July resulted earliest sprouting (28.71 days), while grafting in
the first fortnight of August recorded late sprouting (35.10 days)
under North- Eastern dry zone of Karnataka.
Veneer grafting performed on 10th August was found to be
the best technique in terms of sprouting percentage after one
(89.62%) and six (82.30 %) month of grafting .
Singh et al.  observed that the Dashehari gave significantly
higher average sprouting success (65-90%), average number of
leaves (8.27) and survival after 6 months (65.35%) than Langra
in July. Radha et al.  reported that the height of the plants
varied from 26.3 cm in Chandrakaran to 36.5 cm in Bangalora
at 6 months. Karim  reported that the highest success was
in Sindhu (80.12%) followed by Fazli and Hybrid-10 (73.05%)
and (68.32%) respectively and the lowest was in Gopalbhog
(55.25%). Bobade et al.  reported that the maximum values
of growth parameters like height of sprout (6.02 cm), length of
shoot (27.97 cm), length of secondary roots (23.73 cm) were also
observed in grafts of variety Mallika and it was closely followed
by grafts of variety Kesar. The maximum value of stionic ratio
(0.93) was recorded in grafts of variety Pairi and it was at par
with variety Amrapali (0.91).
Similar experiments have been carried out by different
workers in different plant species on various parameters of
grafting and success percentage with minimum time with respect
to the various [24-37].
Singh and Srivastava  studied on softwood grafting in
mango and recorded highest success (84%) in July. They also
studied softwood grafting for two years from July to September
and March to April. Better success was recorded in August (90%).
Observed that grafting in the warm humid months of June and
July gave the highest survival (72-78%). Singh & Suryanarayana
 studied softwood grafting in mango from June to October in
Andaman and obtained the higher grafting success (87%) during
the month of August.
Results revealed that veneer grafting was the best while
forkert budding was the most suitable method in terms of bud
break, survival, sprout length, leaf emergence and final success
[40-41]. Sabeky  reported that the highest percentage of
grafting success (67.2%) was obtained with grafting on 4 April.
Side and softwood grafting produced higher success rates 65.8
and 63.7%, respectively than shield budding (47.5%), after 90
days. Jana  reported that the maximum leaf number was
observed in Tommy Atkins and Amrapalli. In recent times, many
detached methods of grafting have been successfully used as an
efficient economic and rapid method of propagation of mango
Prasad et al.  studied certain aspects of veneer grafting
in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Banganapally in Tirupati they
recorded that the Precured scions gave higher success (78.96%)
than non-precured scions (52.75%). Success was highest
(71.08%) with 100 days old scions and lowest (62.67%) with
120 days old scions. The mean graft survival after potting was
75.39% with precured scions and 52.28% with non-precured
scions that high mortality often occurs when material grafted in
the nursery is lifted and potted after grafting.
Kumar et al.  reported that the high success in veneer and
cleft grafting (>85%) of mango. Alam et al.  reported that the
minimum success (10.0%) was recorded in BARI Aam-3 grafted
onto 5 and 30days old seedlings. The tallest shoots (25.07 and
24.73 cm consecutively) were produced by Langra grafted on 15
and 20 days old seedlings. Maximum final success (76.67%) was
recorded in 10.0 cm long scions followed by 7.5 cm long ones
(70.00%) in variety Langra.
Majumder et al.  reported that the Grafting experiment
on splice and wedge methods was carried out between August
and November and, up to 80% success was achieved with splice
grafting but survival was poor. Singh & Srivastava  conducted
several trials on factors affecting success in veneer grafting in
mango. They stated that the best results were obtained from
6 months old scions, grafted on 2 years old rootstocks in July/
August. The bud sticks were defoliated and kept in moss wrapped
with polythene for 3-5 days before grafting. Among the several
tying materials polythene strips gave the best results.
Vegetative propagation of mango was described by Iqbal
 in Fiji. He pointed out that cleft and side wedge grafting by
using 5-6 mm large scion of the same diameter on the rootstock,
were the most successful way of getting mango grafts. He also
observed that grafting under 50% shade was more successful
(50-95% success) than grafting in exposed condition.
Geetha et al.  observed that the Grafting success was
highest (96.67%) in Muvandan and Chandrakaran grafted with
cv. Neelam during June and survival was highest (76.67%)
in Puliyan grafted with cv. Banganapally during August. The
grafted seedlings at 18 to 24 months of age were planted out
in January. The results showed that rootstock Carabao survived
all temperatures in both grafting combinations . Islam et
al.  reported that scions of mango cultivars Amrapali and
Gopalbhog grafted on two-year-old rootstocks on 16 May gave
the highest survival rates (56.82 and 52.98%). The survival and
growth of scion and rootstock were evaluated at 120 days after
grafting. Rootstock growth was most pronounced (44.57 cm)
with grafting on 15 April. Among the cultivars, higher survival
(66.13%) was recorded for Amrapali.
The maximum number of sprouted grafts, maximum
sprouting percentage, minimum days for leaf emergence,
maximum number of leaves per graft, girth (above the union),
minimum mortality (%) and maximum survival (%) of grafts
when grafts were made on 6 cm height of rootstock. Consequently,
maximum growth in terms of height and girth (below the union)
were recorded in grafts made on 10 cm height of rootstock of
mango cv. Kesar . Among the growing media used in the study
the soil +sawdust was found to be the best growing mixture in
respect of sprouting, survival and overall performance of stone
grafts over other growing mixtures .
All the above investigation shows that cleft grafting method
is better than the other vegetative propagation method for
mango development. So, increasing the production of mango
fruit grafting is one of the easy processes for developing the
mango plant as soon as possible.