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In many countries, the services of wildlife rescue are in general neglected by governmental institutions or represented mostly by philanthropic organizations that certainly make a very important conservation work. Nevertheless, in spite of the efforts for animal health recovering and reintroduction in the right habitat, in several instances there is no care about the possibility that those animals could harbor some parasitic microorganism and introduce them in a new ecosystem.
Muir-Torre Syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by skin neoplasms in association with a visceral malignancy . Visceral malignancies most commonly seen with MTS include colorectal adenocarcinomas and genitourinary malignancies , while sebaceous adenomas, epitheliomas and carcinomas constitute the common dermatologic neoplastic conditions usually associated with MTS . Due to its association with germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1 and MLH2, which occur secondary to DNA microsatellite instability, MTS is considered as a small phenotypic subset of Lynch syndrome . MTS is an exceedingly rare condition, with a high degree of variability in its penetration
and expression . Here, we describe a case of a 78-year old man with multiple visceral and dermatologic malignancies who had a prolonged and convoluted course of disease spanning over 40 years.
In fact, a great quantity of sylvatic animals, even those included in the list of endangered species, they also may represent important sylvatic reservoirs hosts of parasites that are responsible for animal and human diseases, as can be observed in the Table 1.
One of the major impact component for animal accidents are associated with the roads. The road accident involving the wildlife is a reality throughout the world, actually even during the road construction the impact on the local fauna can be severe [1, 2].
It causes various environmental changes affecting the
wildlife behavior, such as modifications in the home range,
strategies of predation and the physiological state. In addition,
it favors the disordered occupation by the human population
and consequently the emergence of epidemic outbreaks, and
urbanization spread of parasitic diseases . The importance of
saving a sylvatic animal under risk is undeniable nevertheless; it
consists in a little bit more complex situation.
In a first view, one could state that the most important in
relation of an injured sylvatic animal, principally those under
risk of extinction is the recovery of its health and the return to a
Conversely, some essential points have to be also took in
consideration before the reintroduction of the animals, for
a) The locations where animal sorting centers will be built
they should be carefully evaluated for the risks of exposure
to vectors already pre-existing in the area.
b) All newly arrived animals they must be quarantined to
avoid transmission of parasites to other animals.
c) It is very important to identify from what specific place
the specimen was collected if possible geo-referencing the
cases. For performing a posterior anamnesis to facilitate the
detection of potential infections.
d) In case injured animals, besides the treatment of the
animal health, it should be submitted to a battery of specific
tests to the main parasites common in the area, because
some animals with subclinical or subpatent infections may
signify a potential risk of spreading some parasite to other
e) Once some animal has diagnosed to some parasitic
infection and depending on the microorganism identified,
it should be isolated for treatment before interaction with
the others. In some cases, the infection with a determined
parasite can be very dangerous, like Toxoplasma gondii
infections in New World primates that are very dangerous,
frequently evolving to fatal cases .
f) Animals infected with parasites that the treatment
would not guaranty a parasitological cure, such as
Leishmania, or Trypanosoma cruzi,  these animals could
not be relocated, to avoid the spreading of parasites for new
These actions are essential to optimize the reintegration of
animals into the wild, primarily because they can prevent the
spread of infectious diseases by relocating them in areas other
than they lived before. Considering that, it could produce a great
impact on local fauna and even be responsible by the emergence
of a zoonosis in the human population.
Another very important action, constitute of placing
microchips in the animals for further elaboration of databases
containing the detailed identification and registration of each
animal including photography. It would allow the research
groups for the development of projects for the collection,
characterization and storage of biological material from sylvatic
species. In both dead and injured animals, a large number of
samples, including tissues, organs and blood, in addition to ecto
and endoparasites, are of great importance for the improvement
of the local genetic data bank.
With regard to study of the parasites, important information
could be obtained, such as: what are the main species and
their respective hosts of a specific area, determination of
the occurrence of wild cycles, description of new species,
establishment of infection rates of hosts, as well as risk maps of
infections through geo-referencing and geographic information
The Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote
Sensing (SR) technologies have been used for the temporal
and spatial study of some parasitic diseases of medical and
veterinary importance, as well as to evaluate the influence of
environmental factors that may be associated with as well as the
risk of transmission to humans [6-8].
The implementation of such studies also allows the
identification of potential endemic areas related to the places
where wild animals are commonly found, thus providing
subsidies for the elaboration of control strategies.
Elaboration of risk maps, will make possible the identifying
of areas of parasitic diseases where wild animals are commonly
found, thus avoiding the spread of these diseases provide
support for the development of control strategies.
Finally, a very important achievement consist on the
execution environmental education aiming highlighting the
awareness and importance of the preservation of sylvatic
species, as well as the risk that the contact with these animals
can represent as potential reservoirs of diseases.