Perceptual Experiences of the Masses Regarding the Role of Sports in the Promotion of Brotherhood in Pakistan
Afshan Jabeen1*, Salahuddin Khan2, Asghar Khan2, Amir Junaid Shah2, Kashif Ali3 and Wali Ezzad
1Principal Education Department Punjab, Pakistan
2Department of Sports Sciences & Physical Education, Gomal University, Pakistan
3Department of Physical Education, University of Sargodha, Pakistan
4Department of Physical Education, Government Degree College Fateh Pur, Punjab Pakistan
Submission: November 24, 2017; Published: December 05, 2017
*Corresponding author: Afshan Jabeen, Principal Education Department Punjab, Pakistan, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Afshan J, Salahuddin K, Asghar K, Amir J S, ,Kashif Ali, Wali Ezzad. Perceptual Experiences of the Masses Regarding the Role of Sports in the Promotion of Brotherhood in Pakistan. JOJ Case Stud. 2017; 5(2) : 555657.DOI:0.19080/JOJCS.2017.05.555657
There are different segments which plays pertinent role in the promotion of any society and to eradicate social evils, sports is one of the best tool which play a pivotal role in these regard. That is why; the researcher conducted a study to examine the perception and opinion of community about the role of sports in the promotion of harmony. The research work is done by researcher under the quantitative research. The community comprised of Teachers, Students and Public Prosecutors (Lawyers). A structured questionnaire on Summated Rating Scale was developed which aimed to collect the data from 335 respondents chosen from five randomly selected districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Pakistan. The result of the study depict that majority of community members have a very positive perception of the role of sports in the promotion of harmony except the Lawyers, who showed dissatisfaction about the role of sports participation in the promotion of brotherhood.
Sport is a strong tool with recognized fundamental values necessary for building a society with tolerance and friendship . Similarly sports have the potential to prevent unnecessary conflict and control the aggression, hatred and fear. According to Kein (2005), sport is considered as a leisure time activity that connects the societies. Sports is said to be a universal language having high reputation for bringing people together without discriminating their origin, ethnic background, religious beliefs or economic status . According to Horty  sports refers to an activity where there is a social interaction among the people and in response, a contractual connection appears that is known as harmony, while the peace is a state of internal harmony along with forgiveness for the others. It is obvious that sports activities cannot fully remove the entire social problem like conflict, violence tension aggression etc. yet it is perceived that sports programs provide chances to the people of all ages to develop harmony and peace through regular interaction. According to Dajani  sports can play a pivotal role in the resolution of issues widely. The author further says that materialization of sports for peace in the war stricken countries when a crown prince arranged a sporting event to unite youth from different war stricken countries in 2007. Delegates from different countries gathered in Abu Dhabi to ease up tension and for bring brotherhood among the stakeholders.
It is a common observation that violence do exists in sports but the mannerism in sports helps the people to get out of their shells of creed, ethnic backgrounds, religion etc. Dzathor  concludes that for the development of friendly atmosphere there is a dire need to bring the communities together through sporting activities and congenial atmosphere through which such pressures can be controlled where peace dwells and through this situation pressures can be controlled.
Keeping in view the aforementioned brief importance with reference to the promotion of brotherhood, we conducted a study in order to assess the perception of community regarding the role of sports in promotion of brotherhood. To obtain necessary, primary and secondary data, the researcher utilized different tools like pilot studies in the field anecdotal records, questionnaires and then we have analyzed the collected through statistical techniques.
The population of this study comprised all the Teachers at College level, public prosecutors (Lawyers) at District court and students at College level of KP. The researchers confined their study only to five randomly selected districts of KP. The districts comprised Dera Ismail Khan, Bannu, Karak, Kohat and Swabi. The total number of Lawyers (PP) Students and Teachers at college level in these five districts was 1672. To study the whole population is very difficult if not impossible instead, we prefer to select a subgroup or sample from the population, which represent the population. In these circumstances, the researchers restricted the study and selected 335 respondents (20% of 1672). The researchers developed a questionnaire through the help and guidance of the advisor and literature for review. The researcher circulated 335 copies of the final version of the questionnaire among the sampled population. After words, we collected the questionnaires back, arranged the data upon the matrix, and entered into Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16.0) for analyses.
Sport is an arena where people of all ages can get together, get out from their mental and physical exertion, divert to positive healthy habits and enjoy the moments full of life. In addition, the people involved in sporting activities can exchange views with one another and get across the solution of the problem in the community. The sports have every capability to group the people more holistically in their humanitarian perspective .
So the researcher decided to take some thoughtful population like teachers, lawyers, and players for the study to explore the mentioned and even more aspects in society and get response regarding their relationship to sports. The title suggested for this study was, "perceptual experiences of the masses regarding the role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood."
It has been accepted worldwide that sports is healthy activity and plays very important role in the removal of social problems, shaping the social character of the contributor  and bringing contemporary societies closer and together.
This study will contribute towards the power and the excellence of sports to improve brotherhood in the social context in the society as sports have positive impact upon the cultural values in any societal setup . It has also been observed that world is utilizing it assets to facilitate the sports and the sportsmen/women. In almost all the developed Countries, considerable weight and due emphasis is placed upon sports.
A lot of perceptions revolved with in all the strata of stakeholder regarding an aiding role of sports in preventing drug abuse, violence, conflict, and criminal approach. Most of the people believe in a positive impact of sports to decrease aggressiveness.
Brotherhood is very necessary for the developmental process of every nation, as we observe it in world. Holistic perspective of all the religions is to pass the life through brotherhood and especially Islam refers to "salamti” and it virtually means it. Institutions are also very much important in the development of brotherhood and sports being an institution, contributes a lot in the development of brotherhood.
Sports play a key role in the overall development of any society. The main reason behind the going trend of conflict, violence, offence behavior and other unlawful activities, particularly among the younger is the lack of unavailability of sports and recreational activities. A study conducted by Andrew  argue that denoting regular sports participation among the members, particularly in the deprived are laid then at creating offensive behavior, negative and anti social behavior.
On the other hand, prevision of sports and recreational activity can help an individual to polish the behavior and make functional members of the society. In a study Schule (2003) found that sports participation promote quality of settlement and tolerance among the participants. Harmony and peace are interrelated with each other and both are necessary for the development and promotion of any society. Peace is the restful conditions of the people live in any community. Sports provide a respectful condition avoiding the feeling of conflict, unrest and tension. According to Augustine, (2008) sports activities provide condition of harmony and settlement of the people in a community by avoiding the conflict and tension.
Sports provide a platform in which different people get together and participate in various activities. In this occasion they extend the head of cooperation with each other .simultaneously they do respect of each other. For instant the player do respect of the captain, each and other officials. It means that sports create the sense of respect in a study Ennis et al.  illustrated that participation in sports activity work to understand the right of others. They further substantiated that an organized sport program give performance to develop respect among the participant. In other study conducted by Bowles  found that sports participation develop the sense of respect, cooperation and fellowship among the participants
Positive attitude refer to behavior of an individual. Sports play pivotal role in the development of positive attitude of an individual. Positive attitude are necessary for every aspect of the life whether it is education, tradition or any profession. Participation in sporting activities develops the sense of good and positive behavior. The study is also conducted by Cardenas (2013). He discloses his views that sports give chance to every individual for development of self-respect and reorganization of self-efficacy of participants. Sports and recreational activities have natural ability that brings positive changes in the thoughts and behaviors of child and young people when they take part in sporting activities.
Sports develop the sense of common welfare in the different form of life. Sports also provide opportunities for the disable people to take part in sports activity and to satisfy their dreams. Sports play pivotal role in the community particularly in two main aspects, traditional sports and enrolment of disable people in sports. This is also conducted by the Kidd (2008), he argue that participation in sports fulfills two roles of the community. The first role is in the traditional sport development system for community (in which all the people of community take in the sporting activities) system. The second role has developed where sport is employed as a platform to deal with societal issues and provide opportunities for disadvantageous members of society and we can say that the Para Olympic is the best example of this study.
Sports create the sense of brotherhood, and sports are the basic tool in which the people are getting together and eliminating the clashes among themselves. Brotherhood is a strong tool for the peace, harmony and for the resolving of differences. This study is conducted by the MacBride (1980) he says that in the modern age sports are considered one of the educational activities and considered one of the essential components of our society.
Sports allow us to take part in physical and recreational activity and also guide us in every aspect of life. Through the sporting activity we can easily know about the rules, regulation and principle of the life. Sports have the quality to bring the people together and create understanding among them. This study is conducted by the Danish et al. (1993) they explore their views that the basic motto and purpose of sports is to covey all the basic principles and rules of life. Through sporting activity one can be able to respect the team mate, the opponent and all members of the society. Sports tell us that there should be good understanding between rich and poor societies. Sports are one of the things that create the sense of social attribute.
To study the whole population is very difficult if not impossible instead we prefer to select a subgroup or sample from the population which represent the population (Jackson, 2003).
Fraenkel & Wallen  define that sample as a group from which information is obtained (as cited in Islam et al., 2013). In the province of Khyber Paktunkhwa (KP) Pakistan there are twenty five districts (25) and it is quite difficult for the researcher to contact each and every teacher at College level, public prosecutors (Lawyers) at District court and students players at College level. To overcome this difficulty the researcher decided to select five (5) districts using Stratified Sampling Technique under the Gay (1987) role of (20% of 25 Districts) randomly selected Sawabi, Kohat, Karak, Dera Ismail Khan and Bannu. The total number of Lawyers (PP) Students players and Teachers at college level in these five strata were 1672 so using two stage random sampling technique the sample of the study was restricted to become 335 (20% of 1672) the detailed description of the sample is given below in the table.
The questionnaire was developed through the help and guidance of the advisor and literature was used for review. The developed questionnaire was placed before research experts for the purpose of reliability, face validity and content validity. After the reliability and validity process there were only 31 items left in the questionnaire. The 335 copies of the final version of the questionnaire were circulated among the sample. The respondents were given the time of two days time to fill it. They were told that this information will only be used for the research purpose. After words the questionnaires were collected back and the data was arranged upon the matrix and entered into SPSS (version 16.0).
Table 1 shows the category-wise frequencies and percentages of students, teachers and lawyers. The number of students was 213, teachers were 109 and lawyers were 13. The percentage of students in total sample was 63.6% and teachers were 32.5% and lawyers were 3.9%.
Table 2 show the category-wise descriptive analysis of sample. The mean of students was 3.49, teachers were 3.28 and the mean of lawyers was 3.29.
Testing of hypothesis
H01. There is no significant role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood as perceived by the teachers.
One sample t-Test showing the perceptions of teachers regarding the role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood (Table 3).
The above table shows that p=0.000 < 0.05 which indicates that significant role of sports in the promotion of harmony when tested at 3.00 value. Hence, the null hypothesis H01 stating all the teachers think that there is no significant role of sports in promoting harmony and peace is here by rejected.
H02. There is no significant role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood as perceived by the students.
One sample t-Test showing the perceptions of students regarding the role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood (Table 4).
The above table shows that p=0.000<0.05 which indicates that significant role of sports in the promotion of harmony when tested at 3.00 value. Hence, the null hypothesis H01 stating all the students think that there is no significant role of sports in promoting harmony and peace is here by rejected.
H03. There is no significant role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood as perceived by the lawyers.
One sample t-Test showing the perceptions of lawyers regarding the role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood (Table 5).
The above table shows that p=0.061>0.05 which indicates that No significant role of sports in the promotion of harmony when tested at 3.00 value. Hence, the null hypothesis H01 stating all the lawyers think that there is no significant role of sports in promoting brotherhood is here by accepted
One Way ANOVA (Single Factor) shows the significant difference between the perceptions of teachers, lawyers and students regarding the role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood (Table 6).
Table 6 shows that F (2, 332) = 5.016, p = .007 > 0.05 which means that there is a significant difference between the perceptions of teachers, lawyers and students regarding the role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood. Therefore, the null hypothesis H07 is here by rejected.
Table 7 shows the results of the tukey’s test. It is clear from the table that there is a significant difference between students and teachers (p<.005) and there is no significant difference between students and lawyers (p > 0.05). Also there is no significant difference between the lawyers and teachers (p > 0.05).
The teacher at the college level perceived that sports play a significant role in the development and promotion of brotherhood and was tested through one sample t-Test with testing value 3.0. The P-value was appeared as 0.000 which is less than 0.05. It means that all the college level teachers think that sport plays a significant role in the development and promotion of brotherhood hence the null hypothesis was rejected.
Null hypothesis 2
The student was asked regarding the role of sports activities in the promotion of brotherhood the hypothesis was tested with one sample t-Test with testing value 3.00. The P-Value was appeared as 0.000 which is less than 0.05. It means that all the college level students (District level players) think that sports plays significant role in the promotion of brotherhood. Hence the null hypothesis was rejected.
Null hypothesis 3
The lawyers were investigated about the role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood and were tested on one sample t-Test with testing value 3.00. The P-Value was appeared as 0.061 which is greater than 0.05. It means that all the district court lawyers of KP Pakistan think that sports play no significant role in the promotion of brotherhood. Hence the null hypothesis H03 was accepted.
Null hypothesis 4
Teachers, lawyers and students were too analyzed regarding the role of sports in the promotion of brotherhood and were tested through One Way ANOVA (single factor). The F (2, 332) = 5.016, p = .007 < 0.05 which means that there is a significant difference between the perceptions of teachers, lawyers and students regarding the role of sports in the brotherhood and peace. Therefore, the null hypothesis H07 is here by rejected.
The study included three types of respondents i.e. teachers, students and lawyers to show the role of sports in promoting brotherhood. Discussion depicts the picture that teachers and students are of the thought that sports promote respect for all human being and it is an arena in the society where harmony grows, as sports create social interaction among the peoples. Teachers and students were also of the opinion that peace is the basic need for the development process of any nation. It was concluded form their response that sports create the sense of common welfare among the people in addition to creating the sense of co-operation among the masses which ultimately prove helpful in decreasing the crime.
The researcher concluded that sports prevent individuals from drug abuse which is major social evil in the society and is helpful in building brotherhood, discipline, social peace, sense of tolerance; solving social problems, connect different societies.
The researcher concluded that there is significant difference among the perception of teachers, lawyers and students, but the relationship among views of teachers and students and teachers and lawyers was not significant while the relationship between the views of lawyers and students was significant with reference to the role of sports activities in promotion of brotherhood.
This study revealed that all the masses responded on the basis of their personal life experience that sports play significant role in the promotion of brotherhood. There is a great deal of evidence in the study of, regarding the effectiveness of sports for the promotion of brotherhood. Further it was also evident that conflict situation can be resolved through participation in various sports activities. The study revealed that majority of respondents perceived that a sport is important elements which create the sense of brotherhood, tolerance, respect and cooperation. It is also found in the present study that sports eliminate the social barriers like criminal behavior, kidnapping and drug abuse and bring unity among the participants. Similar results have been found in the study of , that Sports is a constructive educational tool which assembles the people breaking through social, religious and cultural barriers. The above statement from a previous study supports the findings of the present study.
In the present study most of the respondents are of view that sports play a key role in the creation of friendly atmosphere which eliminate the conflict in the society. The researcher found that by participation in sporting activities conflict can be resolved among the participants, it has also found in , conducted a study regarding use of sport to address conflict affected areas in Asia. They declared that Olympism education (peace) is a culturally relevant pragmatic process of learning and an integrated set of life principles through the practice of sport so the above mentioned results are in line which favors the result of the study in hand.
The present study show that majority of the respondents are of the opinion that sports has the quality to polish an individual behavior and make them functional member of the society, the researcher found that brotherhood is dependent upon the sporting activities, which settle the issues like conflict violence in justice and deprivation of rights, It is also found in (Bircan C, Bruck T & Vothknecht M 2010),argue that Sport is often described as a language that everyone in the world can understand and indeed sport can bring together and unite the groups and communities [16-17].