Exploratory Factor Model of Engagement
in the COVID-19 Era
Arturo Sanchez Sanchez1*, Lidia Amalia Zayas Esquer2, Cruz Garcia Lirios3 and Tirso Javier Hernandez Gracia4
1Autonomous University of Tlaxcala, Mexico
2University of Sonora, Mexico
3School of Public Administration, Mexico
4Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo, Mexico
Submission: May 22, 2023; Published: May 26, 2023
*Corresponding author: Arturo Sanchez Sanchez, Autonomous University of Tlaxcala, Mexico
How to cite this article: Arturo Sanchez S, Lidia Amalia Zayas E, Cruz Garcia L, Tirso Javier Hernandez G. Arturo Sanchez Sanchez1*, Lidia Amalia Zayas
Esquer2, Cruz Garcia Lirios3 and Tirso Javier Hernandez Gracia4. J Gynecol Women’s Health 2023: 25(2): 556157. DOI: 10.19080/JGWH.2023.25.556157
Given that Social Work is immersed in public policies and social programs that are aimed at vulnerable, marginalized or excluded groups, it is necessary to analyze its commitment considering its relationship with the management for the treatment of diseases and rehabilitation in institutions of the health sector . In this sense, the objective of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of an instrument that measures work commitment (22 items out of a total of 35) in the health sector. For this, a non-probabilistic sample of 125 social work professionals with experience in the implementation of social programs and monitoring of institutional strategies for health promotion was used. Normality (kurtosis = 7.272), reliability (alpha = .673) and validity (KMO = .875; X2 = 12.156; 11gl; p = .000) of the scale that measures work commitment were established . A reflective structural model was established in which commitment to the institution is positively related to work commitment (β = .91). The fit and residual indices corroborated the multidimensionality hypothesis of work commitment (GFI = .975; NFI = .975, CFI = .985, RMSEA = .009). Considering the findings raised, the scope and limits of the study were discussed.
In Mexico, social policies and programs involve care for vulnerable, marginalized or excluded groups through the professional practice of Social Work. In the area of health, management and promotion are intervention areas of Social Work . In other words, to the extent that the State promotes human development in the areas of health, education and employment, it affects institutional strategies for disease prevention and treatment. However, the political-institutional machinery of the health sector requires talents committed to low-income social groups, since networks for local development will be formed among them . Therefore, it is relevant to study the indicators of work commitment in professionals linked to social assistance programs . A diagnosis of the areas of opportunity and the virtues of the health management and promotion system will allow discussing the emergence of new social assistance paradigms focused on the promoters of human development.
Although public institutions are limited to a National Development Plan, the professional exercise of Social Work is often conditioned by local or institutional situations or by the work environment, the salary or the stress that personalized attention implies . In this sense, it is necessary to establish the dimensions of the organizational commitment of Social Work professionals, since a high degree of commitment suggests an efficient level of care that could translate into a favorable evaluation of social policies and institutional programs.
In the case of the health sector, labor commitment, as it is associated with health management and promotion, is configured by indicators that are in charge of exalting institutional structures and policies to predict personal actions . In this sense, work commitment has been a transmitter of relationships and conflicts within an institution that inhibit or improve job satisfaction . As professional commitment transfers organizational values
of collaborative interaction, it affects the expectations of the
members of an organization . Such a process supposes the
coexistence of labor commitment indicators that by their nature
are complementary and opposed . That is, the organizational
commitment contains two socialization processes, the primary
allusive to principles that place the individual in a context and the
secondary relative to principles that identify him in a structure of
power relations, both can be complementary and opposed. In the
field of Social Work, institutions serve as secondary socialization
structures to influence the perceptions, beliefs, attitudes,
decisions, and actions of their employees . In principle, the
institutions are a scenario of political rationality in which the State
wields social assistance programs that Social Work professionals
must follow and, in any case, perfect said system to achieve a
favorable evaluation of public policies and programs. social .
Such a process of political rationality can be complementary or
antagonistic to the principles that guide personal, interpersonal,
family or collaborative commitment in the employees of a public
institution . In this sense, the commitment derived from
primary socialization may come to oppose the organizational
commitment derived from second-order socialization.
1García Lirios, Cruz, Javier Carreón Guillén, Jorge Hernández Valdés, and María de Lourdes Morales Flores.
The psychology of organizations has maintained that
production processes are inherent to the cognitive processes
of those who work in an organization . In reference to
organizational development, organizational psychology studies
have shown that commitment is a factor in the systematization
of production . In this sense, the commitment is assumed as
a set of actions, roles, motives and expectations that generate a
collaborative dynamic among the members of a work group or
productive organization . The organizational commitment
model proposes seven causes related to empowerment,
motivation, identity, trust, ambiguity and conflict, which affect
commitment through satisfaction.
An increase in empowerment and motivation would lead to
an increase in satisfaction and commitment . However, the
reduction of ambiguity and conflict, when negatively related to satisfaction, lead to an increase in commitment. Organizational commitment is determined by empowerment, motivation, identity,
trust, ambiguity and conflict for satisfaction, then commitment can
be defined as the result of the interrelation between organizational
factors of a human nature in reference to the relationship between
leaders. and  employees In this sense, commitment is based on
personal desires and organizational visions . It is an indicator
of equity and justice in which leaders relate to employees based
on a balance between freedoms, capabilities and responsibilities.
Within the framework of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs),
commitment is considered an intrinsic value of the person .
In contrast, organization theories postulate that commitment is
a complex process of interrelationships between psychological
and organizational factors that aim to systematize strategies to
achieve goals . The state of the art considers commitment as
an intermediate factor between the climate and job satisfaction. As
organizations systematize production, they substantially increase
2014. «Contrast of a Model of Labor Commitment in Public Health Centers». University Act 24 (1):48-59. https://doi.org/10.15174/au.2014.495
2Garcia Lirios, Cruz, Enrique Martinez Muñoz, and Arturo Sanchez Sanchez. 2019. “Exploratory Factorial Structure of the Institutional Dimensions of Labor Commitment in a Higher Education Institution (IES) in Central Mexico”. Social Perspectives 20 (2). https://perspectivassociales.uanl.mx/
3Bustos-Aguayo, José Marcos, Margarita Juárez-Nájera, and Cruz García Lirios. 2022. «Review of Entrepreneurship in the COVID-19 Era». Ingenio magazine 19 (1): 60-66. https://doi.org/10.22463/2011642X.3173 .
4Sánchez-Sánchez, Arturo, Oscar Valés-Ambrosio, Cruz García-Lirios, and Michiko Amemiya-Ramirez. 2019. «Reliability And Validity Of An Instrument That Measures Knowledge Management: Array». BLANKS. Education Magazine (Inquiries Series) 1 (30): 9-22. https://doi.org/10.37177/
5Hernandez Valdes Jorge, Sanchez Sanchez Arturo, Garcia Lirios Cruz. 2019. «Organizational Task Networks in a Public University of the State of Mexico». Borderless Academic Research Journal: Division of Economic and Social Sciences , No. 29 (July):25. https://doi.org/10.46589/rdiasf.v0i29.244 .
6Garcia-Lirios, Cruz. 2021. «Construct Validity of a Scale to Measure the Job Satisfaction of Professors of a Public University in Mexico During COVID-19». Science Technology Society Trilogy 13 (25):e 1826. https://doi.org/10.22430/21457778.1826 .
7Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2021. «Occupational Risk Perceptions in the Post Covid-19 Era». KNOW AND SHARE PSYCHOLOGY 2 (1). https://doi. org/10.25115/kasp.v2i1.3869 .
8Carreón-Guillén, Javier, José Marcos Bustos-Aguayo, Francisco Rubén Sandoval-Vázquez, Margarita Juárez-Nájera, and Cruz García-Lirios. 2022. «Governance in the COVID -19 Era: Expectations for Water Services». FIGEMPA: Investigation and Development 14 (2):68-80. https://doi. org/10.29166/revfig.v14i2.3525 .
9Sanchez Sanchez Arturo, and Bertha Leticia Rivera Varela. 2020. «Governance in a Coffee Industry». Borderless Academic Research Journal: Division of Economic and Social Sciences , No. 30 (April):28. https://doi.org/10.46589/rdiasf.v0i30.302 .
10Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2021. «Perception of Public Insecurity in the Post COVID-19 Era: Perception of Public Insecurity in the Post Covid-19 Era». Social Projection Magazine 4 (1), 45-53. https://journalusco.edu.co/index.php/rps/article/view/3027 .
11García Lirios, Cruz, Gilberto Bermúdez-Ruíz, and Margarita Juárez-Nájera. 2022. «Entrepreneurship Dimensions of the Reactivation of the Tourism-Based Economy in Central Mexico». Ara: Tourism Research Journal 11 (1). Barcelona, Spain: 100-114. https://revistes.ub.edu/index.php/
12Sánchez Sánchez, Arturo, Javier Carreón Guillén, Héctor Daniel Molina Ruíz, and Cruz García Lirios. 2018. “Recruitment of a Labor Training Model”. Interconnecting Knowledge , no. 5 (August): 37-73. https://doi.org/10.25009/is.v0i5.2559 .
13Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2021. «Human, Social and Intellectual Capital in the COVID-19 Era: Agenda Setting, Framing, Plausibility and Verifiability in Repositories»s. Connection , no. 16 (December), 133-50. https://doi.org/10.18800/connection.202102.006 .
14Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2022. «Family Identity in the Covid-19 Era». Social Perspectives 23 (1):41-50. https://perspectivassociales.uanl.mx/index. php/pers/article/view/152 .
15Aldana-Balderas, Wilfrido, Francisco Espinoza-Morales, Jorge Hernández-Valdés, and Cruz García-Lirios. 2018. «Specification of a Model for the Study of Collaborative Networks in a Knowledge-Producing University». Civilize: Social and Human Sciences 18 (35):91-102. https://doi.
Based on such assumptions, organizational psychologists have
assumed that commitment is a product rather than an ongoing
process of identity . Those who make a commitment to their
companies are seen as a product of organizational dynamics rather
than as individuals with collaborative personalities and values
. In this sense, the recruitment and selection of prospects
is not carried out based on their individual characteristics, but
rather on their abilities and coping strategies in the face of the
emergence of conflicts, risk and uncertainty.
Organizational commitment opens the discussion about the
relationship between organization and individual . The
influence of the first on the second seems to be corroborated
by organizational psychology studies, but commitment, as
a systematization of functions and results, goes beyond the
individual and the organization . Labor commitment refers to
a set of moral and evaluative principles characteristic of leaders
who, in their eagerness to achieve goals, firmly believe in the
ideals of productivity, order and systematization of organizational
functions. In short, commitment is a set of beliefs, attitudes and
actions that reduce uncertainty and increase the propensity for
the future . The increase in risk expectations would decrease
work motivation and disrupt the human relations system, affecting
the performance of each member. Psychological studies of work
commitment have established causal relationships between this
variable and leadership styles . As the type of leadership
intensifies, the increase in work commitment is explained. That
is, the different types of leadership affect the increase or decrease
of perceptions, attitudes, decisions and actions of employees .
In this sense, the performance history affects the commitment to
increase productivity in the future . In other words, behind
work commitment, command structures, task relationships,
conflicts and stress or satisfaction seem to explain the increase or
decrease in the commitment assumed by employees during their
work stay, although for sex and attention to the client explain the
degree of work commitment.
Such findings assume a continuity between primary and
secondary socialization, whether in a collectivist or individualistic sense, favorable or unfavorable , the principles that guide the individual in a family group would be the same ones that guide
them in a labor or productive group . In light of these results,
work commitment would be the last link, at least in the workplace,
in a chain of perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, decisions and actions
directed from the primary group in which the individual learned
the basic symbols and , in whose development, he never had
the opportunity to question those principles that now seem to
guide his commitment, productivity and job satisfaction .
In summary, the state of the art seems to show solid evidence
regarding the complementarity between primary socialization
and secondary socialization.
16Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2021. «Biosecurity and Cybersecurity Perceived Before COVID-19 in Mexico». Security and Defense Studies 16 (31):137-60. https://doi.org/10.25062/1900-8325.293 .
17Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2019. “Specification of a Model for the Study of Reproductive Choice.” Health Horizon 18 (3). https://doi.org/10.19136/hs.a18n3.2957 .
18Hernández Valdés, Jorge, Margarita Juárez Nájera, José Marcos Bustos Aguayo, Gilberto Bermúdez Ruíz, María Luisa Quintero Soto, Francisco Javier Rosas Ferrusca, Rosa María Rincón Ornelas, and Cruz García Lirios. 2021. «Categories Proposal for Retrospective Documentary Research on Treatment Adherence». Med Magazine 28 (2), 11-24. https://doi.org/10.18359/rmed.3835 .
19Garcia Lirios, Cruz, Juan Garza Sanchez, Tirso Hernandez Gracia, Javier Carreon Guillen, and Francisco Espinoza Morales. 2021. Contrasting a Model of the Determinants of the Tourist Stay in the Covid-19 Era: Implications for Biosafety. Tourism and Heritage, no. 16 (March), 11-20. https://doi.org/10.24265/turpatrim.2021.n16.01 .
20Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2021. «Vocational Training in the Post COVID-19 Era». Education and Health Scientific Bulletin Institute of Health Sciences Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo 9 (18), 42-47. https://doi.org/10.29057/icsa.v9i18.6282 .
21Sandoval-Vázquez, Francisco R., José Marcos Bustos Aguayo, and Cruz García-Lirios. 2021. «Local Development in the Post Covid-19 Era». Huasteca Science Scientific Bulletin of the High School of Huejutla 9 (18), 17-22. https://doi.org/10.29057/esh.v9i18.6283 .
22Garcia Lirios, Cruz, Javier Carreon Guillen, Jose Marcos Bustos Aguayo, and Jorge Hernandez Valdes. 2020. “Perception of Coffee Entrepreneurship in the Huasteca Region, Central Mexico”. magazine Activos 18 (1):235-66. https://doi.org/10.15332/25005278/6164 .
23García Lirios, Cruz, Cellia Yaneth Quiróz Campas, Francisco Espinoza Morales, Javier Carreón Guillén, Arturo Sánchez Sánchez and Francisco Javier Rosas Ferrusca. 2022. «Context of the Habitus of Transfer to Tourist Destinations in Students from Central Mexico During the Era
of COVID-19». Ayana. Tourism Research Journal 2 (2):024. https://doi.org/10.24215/27186717e024 .
24Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2021. «Vocational Training Network: Knowledge Management, Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Vocational Training Network: Knowledge Management, Innovation and Entrepreneurship ». PAPERS 13 (26). https://doi.org/10.54104/papeles.v13n26.1002 .
25Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2020. «Dimensional Meta-Analysis of Trust: Implications for Social Communication of Covid-19». APPOINTMENTS 6 (1). https://doi.org/10.15332/24224529.6233 .
26Coronado Rincón, Oscar, María del Rosario Molina González, Eyder Bolívar Mojica, Javier Carreón Guillén, Cruz García Lirios, and Francisco Javier Rosas Ferrusca. 2022. «Governance Strategy to Agree on the Expectations of Students of a Public University to Return to Classes Interrupted by the Pandemic». Magazine of the Faculty of Law and Political Sciences 52 (136): 319-38. https://doi.org/10.18566/rfdcp.v52n136.
Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the dimensions of
organizational commitment from the complexity that the practice
of Social Work implies . This study seeks to establish the
dimensions of work commitment considering levels of institutional
complexity that framed the nonconformity with indicators of a
commitment derived from primary socialization.
What are the dimensions of labor commitment in Social Work
professionals who work in public institutions, but who have had a
critical training regarding the exercise of their profession and have
been socialized under collectivist principles where the interests
of the majority prevail over personal or institutional objectives?
To answer the question, the Theory of Labor Commitment was
reviewed, which together with organizational psychology studies
show that: Labor commitment, as a framework of perceptions,
beliefs, attitudes, intentions and actions, is configured by
various dimensions from individual, group and social. in it the
institutional values come together . Labor commitment,
despite its configuration, is one-dimensional by adjusting personal
expectations and group values to the organizational structure and
A cross-sectional study (only one diagnosis is made in each
time and space) and a correlational study (only associative
relationships are established between ordinal variables) were
Non-probabilistic selection of 125 professionals (75 women
and 50 men with an average age of 33 years and 7 graduates) from
Social Work in health centers in the state of Morelos (Mexico)
with an average monthly income of USD 870 (SD = 12, 5 USD) and
seven years of work experience (SD = 2.3). Considering that the
organizational commitment is influenced by social policy and the
assistance program, it was considered convenient as an inclusion
criterion to know the National and Institutional Development
Plan, as well as the areas of professional practice.
Questions related to sex, age, income, origin, experience, and
marital and family status were included. The Work Commitment
Scale was used , which includes items around the perception of
 support (4 items), recognition (12 items), learning (11 items)
and job evaluation (8 items). Each item includes five response
options ranging from “never” to “always”.
The respondents expressed their degree of commitment to
specific situations of their job functions and their organizational environment . Through a telephone contact with the selected sample in which an interview was requested and whose purposes
would be merely academic and institutional to follow up on
graduates, whether they were graduates or not . Once the
appointment was established, they were given a questionnaire that
included sociodemographic, economic, and psycho-organizational
questions . In cases where there was a tendency to give the
same response option or, failing that, no response, they were
asked to write down on the back the reasons why they answered
with the same response option or, where appropriate, the In the
absence of data,  they were captured in the Statistical Program
for Social Sciences (SPSS) and the analysis of structural equations
were estimated with the help of the Analysis of Structural
Moments (AMOS) program and the Relations program. Structural
27Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2021. “Modelling the perception of security in the COVID-19 era”. Asian Social Science Proceedings 8(2), 160-63. https://doi.org/10.31580/apss.v8i2.1856
28Santiago-Torner, Carlos, and Sandra Rismillia Rojas-Espinosa. 2021. «COVID-19 Pandemic and Labor Commitment: Relationship Within an Organization of the Colombian Electricity Sector». Research, Development and Innovation Journal 11 (3):437-50. https://doi.org/10.19053/20278306.v11.n3.2021.13342 .
29Quiroz Campas, Celia Yaneth, Javier Carreón Guillén, José Marcos Bustos-Aguayo, Arturo Sánchez Sánchez, Francisco Espinoza Morales, and Cruz García Lirios. 2022. “Ecocentric Governance: Sustainability between the Availability of Resources and the Needs”. Jurnal Bina Praja: Internal Affairs Governance Journal 14(1): 147-58. https://doi.org/10.21787/jbp.14.2022.147-158 .
30Espinoza Morales Francisco, Hernández Valdés Jorge, Carreón Guillén Javier, García Lirios Cruz, Juárez Nájera Margarita, and Bustos Aguayo José Marcos. 2022. «4.0 Tutoring Model and Development of Research Protocol». DEDICA Revista De Educação E Humanidades ( dreh) , no. 20 (July), 73-95. https://doi.org/10.30827/dreh.vi20.22612
31Garcia-Lirios, Cruz. 2021. «Construct Validity of a Scale to Measure the Job Satisfaction of Professors of a Public University in Mexico During COVID-19». Science Technology Society trilogy 13 (25):e 1826. https://doi.org/10.22430/21457778.1826
32Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2019. «Organizational Intelligences And Wisdoms: Knowledge Networks Around Learning Complexity: Organizational Intelligences And Wisdoms: Knowledge Networks Around Learning Complexity». Psychogent 22 (41):1-28. https://doi.org/10.17081/psico.22.41.3304 .
33Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2019. «Organizational Intelligences And Wisdoms: Knowledge Networks Around Learning Complexity: Organizational Intelligences And Wisdoms: Knowledge Networks Around Learning Complexity». Psychogent 22 (41):1-28. https://doi.org/10.17081/psico.22.41.3304 .
34Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2019. “Model of Expectations Regarding Public Safety in Microentrepreneurs in Central Mexico”. DIXI 20 (28):1-13. https://doi.org/10.16925/2357-5891.2018.02.04 .
35Lilies, Dr. Cruz Garcia. 2020. “Reliability and Validity of an Instrument that Measures Corporate Social Responsibility”. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 4 (02): 1781-89. https://sshj.in/index.php/sshj/article/view/528 .
The establishment of the structural model of reflexive
relationships between work commitment and its indicators was
carried out considering the normality, reliability and validity of
the scale that measured the psychological construct . Table 2
shows the results of the normality, reliability and validity analyses.
The kurtosis parameter was used to establish the normality of the
distribution of responses at the questioned level of commitment.
The results show that the kurtosis parameter had a value less than
eight, which is the minimum suggested to assume distribution
normality. In the case of reliability, Cronbach’s alpha value
allowed establishing the relationship between each question and
the scale. The value greater than. 60 was considered as evidence
of internal consistency. Finally, the exploratory factorial analysis
of principal components and varimax rotation in which factorial
weights greater than. 300 allowed the emergence of commitment
to be deduced from eight indicators: Multivariate = 7.272; Boot
= .000; Alpha = .673; KMO = .875; X2 = 12,156; 11gl; p = .000
Once the normality, reliability and validity were established, the
covariances between the indicators were established to model the
existing relationships with the organizational factor.
The analysis of covariances shows negative and positive,
significant and spurious associations between the indicators of
work commitment (see Table 3). In the case of the commitment that
the surveyed sample has with the institution where they work, it is
related to the commitment to growth as a couple (Φ = .901). That
is, as the institutional objectives are met, they seem to affect the
objectives shared as a couple. In this sense, interpersonal dynamics
could be interrelated with other collaborative dynamics that in
the workplace are inherent to the task climate or the relationship
climate. On the other hand, commitment to oneself, which
reflects a propensity to individualism in reference to institutional
commitment, which implies a propensity to collectivism, are
opposite indicators since while the values of a variable increase,
a decrease in the values of the variable is observed. another
variable (Φ = -.635). That is, personal purposes do not seem to
converge with the interests of the institution where Social Work
professionals perform their duties. Superordinate indicator,
which denotes a commitment beyond the simple functions of
observation, interview, systematization and intervention that the
profession requires; the criticism of these functions is linked to
interpersonal objectives (Φ = .650). In this sense, the task climate
and the relationship climate are closer to the critical commitment
of the profession than to the conflict, since the questioning of care
functions is necessary in the development of Social Work. Perhaps
it is for this reason that criticism of the profession maintained a
negative relationship with commitment to care (Φ = -.434).
On the other hand, care commitment had its greatest link with
family commitment (Φ=.628). Both indicators maintained positive
relationships from which it can be deduced that the sample
surveyed shows a close relationship between the practice of the
profession as a care commitment and the type of group to which
one belongs or wants to belong. This is a third socialization of the
Social Work professional in which public policies and assistance
programs seem to complement the secondary socialization of
families and groups that surrounded Social Work professionals in
On the contrary, well-being commitment is negatively
related to interpersonal commitment (Φ = -.160). Although
the relationship is spurious, other variables exert an influence
on both commitments, such an association is relevant since the
commitment to the institution that projects and directs the social
programs vanishes due to the interrelationship of the Social Work
professional with other colleagues, vulnerable groups, of reference
or belonging The commitment with the closest interpersonal
circle opposes the institutional policy.
36Bund, Arger Verstapp, Gilberto Bermúdez Ruíz, Olga Anaid Diaz Jacinto, Alfredo Barrera Escobar, Celia Yaneth Quiroz Campas, Rosa María Rincón Ornelas, Francisco Espinoza Morales, Cruz García Lirios, and Gregorio Elizarraraz Guarneros. 2022. “Modeling of structural equations of gastronomic tourism in the face of COVID-19”. International Journal of Marketing Research and Human Resources 3(3): 108-23. https://doi. org/10.47747/ijmhrr.v3i3.776 .
37Garcia Lirios, Cruz, Francisco Espinoza-Morales, and Jorge Hernandez-Valdes. 2021. “Review of Collaborative Networks in the Covid-19 Era”. Marketing and Information Systems Magazine 4 (2), 78-88. https://doi.org/10.31580/jmis.v4i2.2113 .
38Garcia Lirios, Cruz. 2019. “Exploratory Dimensions of the Attitude towards Occupational Health”. Business Dimension 17 (3). https://doi. org/10.15665/dem.v17i3.1924 .
39García Lirios, Cruz, Javier Carreón-Guillén, Arturo Sánchez-Sánchez and Bernardino Martínez-Muñoz. 2022. «Spatiality, Habitus and Capacities Modeling in the Covid-19 Era». Borderless Academic Research Journal: Division of Economic and Social Sciences , No. 38 (June):23. https://doi.org/10.46589/rdiasf.vi38.466 .
In the case of the relationship between collaborative
commitment and family commitment (Φ = .725), it is possible to
observe that the primary socialization group acts as a complement
to the secondary socialization group. In systemic terms, the
mesosystem in which family and work are indicators par excellence
can be explained from commitment as a multidimensional factor.
However, collaborative commitment is negatively related to
interpersonal commitment (Φ = -.200).
On the other hand, commitment to oneself is positively
associated with commitment to the profession: social work (Φ
= .704). Personal and work identities, being linked, explain the
constant exercise of the profession even in spite of its vicissitudes.
In a context in which Social Work functions are reduced to
technical and risk procedures inherent to socioeconomic studies,
Social Work professionals show a close association between
their work functions and personal life goals, but such aspects
are overshadowed by relationships with peers. professionals
since commitment to the profession is opposed to interpersonal
commitment (Φ = -.776).
It is worth noting the association between institutional and
supraordinal commitment (Φ = .710), which means that the
norms of health centers and the recognition of managers towards
the professional practice of social workers are associated in such
a way that the granting of resources, socioeconomic studies or
home visits seem to be linked to the organizational structure in
terms of the distribution of resources or microcredits.
In the case of personal commitment and that derived from
family recognition (Φ = .652), the relationship suggests a dialogue
between the information that family members have about Social
Work and their professional practice. This finding is relevant
considering that it confirms the hypothesis that commitment
is the result of organizational factors in reference to personal
desires. Once the covariances between the indicators were
established, a reflexive model was estimated. Graph 1 shows a
greater correlation between labor-organizational commitment
and the institutional indicator (β = .91). In this sense, the
psychological construction of labor-organizational commitment is
explained by the commitment to institutional policy. Social Work
professionals appear to be influenced by organizational principles
rather than personal, interpersonal, collaborative, functional,
professional, caring, family, or critical goals inherent in Social
Work. Conversely, the critical commitment of the profession is
negatively related to the factor (β = -.42). This result complements
the assumption around which Social Work professionals adjust
their objectives to the internal policies of the institution for which
they work, although they coexist with other principles that guide
Finally, the adjustment indices and residuals were estimated
to test the hypothesis about the configuration of an organizational
commitment that would have as indicators aspects inherent to the
individual, family, colleagues, functions, policies and structure in
which each social worker is inserted. The results show that the
null hypothesis can be accepted since the fit indices are close to
unity and the residual close to zero.
The present study has established eight dimensions of
organizational commitment to show the differences between
the commitment derived from a primary socialization that was
observed in the personal, interpersonal, family and collaborative
objectives versus the commitment derived from a secondary
socialization that was observed in the personal objectives. ,
interpersonal, family and collaborative. care principles, institutional
functional and supraordinal . The convergence between these
principles of contextual location and identity in relation to power
relations allows us to deduce that work commitment is a network
of perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, decisions and actions tending
to the interrelation between the eight dimensions mentioned.
However, the predominance of institutional commitment seems to
show that Social Work professionals adjust their objectives to the
structure and politics of the organization for which they work .
These findings are relevant considering the Labor Commitment
Theory since they complement one of its principles related to
customer service. To the extent that organizations follow a service
quality assessment and satisfaction policy, they encourage an
increase in the responsibilities, expectations and commitments of
their employees. In this way, the present study has found that the
adjustment to the norms and policies of an organization prevails
over personal, interpersonal, collaborative and family objectives.
That is, if in the institutions where Social Work professionals
work, service quality policies were followed and productivity
was established based on consecutive evaluations, the sample
surveyed would adjust their main commitments to the objectives
of said institution.
However, the command structure, according to studies show
that the leadership style explains a greater percentage of the
variance of work commitment in reference to job satisfaction.
life, performance or productivity . In this sense, the present investigation maintains that commitment to the institution, coexisting with personal commitment, explains the influence of
leadership style. In the context of the study, the surveyed sample
expressed a consistent commitment to work to match their
expectations with the mission and vision of the institution where
they work. Therefore, it is logical to think that the leadership style
complements the primary socialization.
40Sánchez-Sánchez, Arturo, Francisco Espinoza-Morales, Celia Yaneth Quiroz-Campas, Francisco Rubén Sandoval-Vázquez, Javier Carreón-Guillén, José Marcos Bustos-Aguayo, Cruz García-Lirios, and Victor Hugo Meriño-Córdoba. 2022. «Meta-analysis of Occupational Risk Perceptions in the COVID-19 Era». Changes And Permanences 13 (1):312-26. https://revistas.uis.edu.co/index.php/revistacyp/article/view/13328 .
42Garcia-Lirios, Cruz. 2021. «Construct Validity of a Scale to Measure the Job Satisfaction of Professors of a Public University in Mexico During COVID-19». Science Technology Society trilogy 13 (25):e 1826. https://doi.org/10.22430/21457778.1826 .
Despite the contributions raised, it is recommended to expand
the study to leadership styles to develop a theory that explains
the influence of the institutional power structure on the work
commitment of Social Work professionals . If it is considered
that the leadership in the institutions is occupied by other health
professionals such as administrators, accountants or doctors, then
it would be pertinent to explain what are the areas of opportunity
for Social Work professionals when it comes to assuming a greater
commitment and responsibility: planning of an institution.
However, regarding the construction of an explanatory model
of job satisfaction as an indicator of efficiency in the professional
practice of Social Work, it is necessary to consider the incidence
of social programs and sectoral strategies from the dynamics of
evaluation of social policies. and institutional that supposes the
achievement of objectives by a human capital willing to reproduce
the development plans of social needs as well as manage the
opportunities and capacities to distribute responsibilities such as
health in vulnerable, marginalized or excluded sectors. The success
of development policies is centered on the level of commitment
of those who execute institutional plans and strategies, manage
resources and promote a culture of self-care, without which any
development plan would be fallible.
The objective and contribution of this work to the state of
the art was to compare the theoretical structure reported in the
literature with respect to the observations made in this study. The
results show that the factors are related to each other with a scope
for work commitment. The literature suggests that this variable
is multidimensional and the results support it. The structural
composition of labor commitment suggests eight predominant
dimensions. These same components were established in the
present study, although their relationships are close to zero.
The areas and lines of research around the eight components
and their structural relationships will make it possible to see
the impact of the pandemic on work commitment. If the studies
suggest that there is a configuration of eight components that
reflect engagement, and the study results point to that structure
in a formative way, then the discussion should focus on the
configuration of the agenda before and after the pandemic and
how it modified the diary. informed participation structure..
García LC, Carreón-Guillén J, Sánchez-Sánchez A, Martínez-Muñoz B (2022) Spatiality, Habitus and Capacities Modeling in the Covid-19 Era. Borderless Academic Research Journal: Division of Economic and Social Sciences 38: 23.
Sánchez-Sánchez A, Valés-Ambrosio O, García-Lirios C, Amemiya-Ramirez M (2019) Reliability and Validity of An Instrument That Measures Knowledge Management: Array. BLANKS Education Magazine (Inquiries Series) 1(30): 9-22.