The organization of crime scene investigation carried out by police officers in Ukraine was considered and analyzed. Based on the analysis, it was determined that it is advisable to conduct an inspection of the scene of the incident by an investigative team, which should include a group of several specialists who perform the main work of identifying, fixing, extracting, and examining material objects.
Keywords: Criminal Proceedings; Crime Scene Investigation; Investigative Team; Specialist; Group of Specialists
Unfortunately, at the current stage of socio-economic and scientific-technical development of society, crime is being professionalized. Increasing the level of organization of criminals, their choice of sophisticated ways of committing and concealing crimes, increasing their technical equipment, forces law enforcement officers to introduce new modern scientific and technical means into the practice of countering crime. The investigation of the scene is carried out at the beginning of the investigation, and the effectiveness of the entire investigation depends on its effectiveness. The use of modern scientific and technical devices is an indispensable condition for the investigation of the crime scene.
According to аrt. 237 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine «in order to identify and record information regarding the circumstances of the commission of a criminal offense, the investigator and prosecutor conduct an inspection of the area, premises, things and documents . According to scientists, the investigation of the crime scene is defined as an investigative action aimed at investigating the material situation of the scene of the incident by directly perceiving it by the investigator or other participants of the inspection in order to identify, fix and remove traces of the crime and other physical evidence, clarify the mechanism of the incident, as well as other circumstances that are important for criminal proceedings [2-6]. The objectives of the investigation of the crime scene are defined as follows: direct investigation by the investigator of the situation at the scene of the incident to clarify the nature and circumstances of the incident; detection, collection, fixation, preliminary research, assessment of traces and material evidence; obtaining information for putting forward and verifying versions of the event under investigation; obtaining data for the organization of operational and investigative measures and the use of public assistance, the pursuit of a suspect, establishing his identity, motives for committing a crime; identifying the causes and conditions that contribute to or facilitate the commission of a crime.
Accordingly, аrt. 237 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine, the review is conducted directly by the investigator or prosecutor. But in practice, the prosecutor takes part in the inspection of the scene of the incident only in cases of high-profile, particularly serious crimes and, as a rule, together with the investigator. Analyzing the practice of investigating crimes investigated by the National Police of Ukraine, it can be noted that an investigative-operational group consisting of an investigator, employees of the operational unit and a specialist goes to the scene of the incident. Criminologists working in the police are involved as specialists. The investigator supervises the actions of all participants and prepares a report of the investigation of the crime scene. The task of operatives of the operative unit is to identify witnesses, eyewitnesses to the crime, to obtain from them information that can be used for the quick pursuit of the criminal, and to conduct other search activities.
A thorough analysis of the practice of investigating crimes in Ukraine allows us to state that the identification, fixation, seizure, and investigation of objects is mainly carried out by a
specialist. A forensic specialist, who participates in the inspection
of the scene of the incident, must perform a huge amount of
work: starting with photo and video recording of the scene of the
incident; detects and removes traces of crime, packages them;
conducts express analysis of seized objects as necessary; based
on the received information, models the mechanism of committing
a crime. Given the variety of crime traces: trace logical, microparticle,
biological, odorous, etc., and the multifaceted nature
of the work, a forensic expert is not able to perform all these
tasks. Therefore, we propose to involve in the investigation of
the crime scene a group of specialists in various narrow-profile
fields of knowledge.
As we know, the investigation of the crime scene by the US
police is carried out by a group of specialists. The detective
works with a group of specialists, which includes a photographer
who takes photos and videos; specialists in the extraction of evidence
depending on their type: trace logical, biological, ballistic,
etc.; analyst; a specialist in scene reconstruction. Each specialist
undergoes certification in his field of activity in specialized
institutions that have the right to train relevant specialists .
These specialists are not police officers and are involved in the
inspection of the scene by agreement. Investigation of the crime
scene by a group of specialists should also be carried out due
to the improvement of forensic techniques and the possibility of
their simultaneous application. This cannot be done by one person.
For example, multicopters (quadrocopters) equipped with
video cameras with appropriate software can be used to capture
the scene of a large crime scene in an open area (for example,
a fire or accident site). It requires a specialist to manage it. To
record the scene of the event, a video camera is used with the
possibility of continuous video recording of a circular panorama
of the scene of the event, which is managed by a separate specialist
. Using this camera at different levels allows you to cover
all possible locations of evidence, and the software allows you to
approach objects and determine the distance between them. Detection
of handprints (for example, using the «Crim-Lite MLD»
device of the «Foster & Freeman» company ) or any other forensic
technique requires the involvement of a separate specialist.
The extraction of biological objects with the possible further
study of DNA molecules requires the involvement of a specialist
biologist . In addition to detection, fixation and removal of
traces, specialists can also conduct research on individual objects.
For example, determine whether a red substance belongs
to blood; to carry out an express analysis of the substance to
classify it as a narcotic; to determine a person’s height by shoe
marks; establish the mechanism of formation of handprints, features
of the papillary pattern structure, etc. Based on the above,
we suggest organizing an inspection of the scene as follows. After
receiving a report about the commission of a crime, a patrol
police team is sent to the scene. A patrol police officer organizes
the security of the crime scene. He can also assess the difficulty
of conducting it and provide the police department with additional
information that can be used to form the composition of the
inspection team. An investigative team consisting of specialists
of various profiles arrives at the scene of the incident.
First, the investigator begins the examination by recording
in the protocol the general situation of the crime scene. At the
same time, photo and video recording are carried out. It is important
to choose the methods of inspection and the territory
of the crime scene, where it is possible to move the participants
without disturbing the situation and traces of the crime. In general,
this is determined by the investigator after consulting with
specialists. Next, the specialists collect and examine the traces
and, after their extraction, provide data on the actions they have
taken to the investigator for recording in the protocol. An important
element of the final stage of the inspection of the scene
of the incident is the probable establishment of the sequence
of actions of the criminals when committing the crime. The reproduction
of the crime event is carried out on the basis of the
versions put forward by specialists based on the research of the
The algorithm of actions proposed by us when investigating
a crime scene is currently difficult to implement in Ukraine for
many reasons, among which the following should be noted: the
lack of narrow-profile specialists in the police force, the imperfection
of the training system of forensic scientists and, as a result,
their inadequate qualifications; the diversity of specialists
in different fields who work in different organizations and departments;
insufficient material and technical and technical and
forensic support of the police, which is unable to pay the relevant
specialists at a sufficient level. The lack of material support
is largely due to the current state of war in Ukraine in connection
with the aggression against our country. In our opinion, the introduction
of crime scene investigation by a group of specialists
into the practice of crime investigation is a promising direction
in police activity.
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