Warning: include(../../js/fulltext.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/jfsci/JFSCI.MS.ID.555847.php on line 2
Warning: include(): Failed opening '../../js/fulltext.php' for inclusion (include_path='.:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/pear:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/php') in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/jfsci/JFSCI.MS.ID.555847.php on line 2 Bullet Fingerprinting Analysis by Digital
The firearm can be linked to the projectiles on the basis of the striation marks formed due to the irregularities present on the surface of barrel. This can be accomplished by using comparison microscope. No two firearms, even those of the same make and model and made consecutively by the same tools, will produce the same markings on a bullet or a cartridge. On the other hand, bullets fired through the same rifled barrel and cartridge cases fired in the same gun may be expected to show an identity of markings which is peculiar to this particular firearm and to no other. These markings serve to identify a particular rifled barrel because that barrel has an individuality possessed by no other barrel. In this study, 20 samples were examined under digital comparison microscope in which fired suspected samples were compared to the crime bullets by conducting test firing. Class characteristics like direction of twist and individual characteristics like striation marks were compared using comparison microscope. It was found that the caliber of the received samples were 7.65mm and 0.315”/8mm. By comparing the striation marks the sample was declared match or no match, leading to firearm linkage
The comparison of marks on fired bullets and spent cartridge cases is a useful way for firearms examiners to make a positive association between fired ammunition and a specific firearm or to exclude a suspected gun.  The forensic identification of ballistics specimens relies on the detection, recognition and ultimate matching of markings on the surfaces of cartridges and projectiles made by the firearms  (Figure 1). The need for firearm identification systems by police services continues to increase with greater accessibility to weapons in the international contexts . The characteristic markings on the cartridge and projectile of a bullet fired from a gun can be recognized as a fingerprint for identification of the firearm . Forensic ballistics imaging has the capacity to produce high resolution digital images of cartridge cases and projectiles for matching to a library of ballistics images  (Figure 2). However, the reliance upon imaging technologies makes identification of ballistics specimens both a demanding and exacting task, where the control of the error of measurement in the imaging technique must not allow compromise of integrity of the identification process (Figure 3). The analysis of marks on bullet casings and projectiles provides a precise tool for identifying the firearm from
which a bullet is discharged [3-6]. The characteristic markings of each cartridge case and projectile are released ready for analysis when the gun is fired. More than thirty different features within these marks can be distinguished, which in combination produce a “fingerprint” for identification of the firearm . This forensic technique has wide application in the world of forensic science, and would play a vital part in legal evidence in the case where firearms are involved. Projectile bullets fired through the barrel of a gun will exhibit extremely fine striation markings, some of which are derived from minute irregularities in the barrel, produced during the manufacturing process (Figure 4 & 5). The examination of these striations on landmarks and groove marks of the projectile is difficult using conventional optical microscopy. However, digital imaging techniques have the potential to detect and identify the presence of striations on ballistics specimens. The discipline of firearm and tool mark identification is based on two empirical hypotheses. The first hypothesis is the consistency/reproducibility of markings which originates from the same firearm or tool. The second hypothesis is the existence of differences between markings originating from two different firearms or tools [7-12].
Present study was done on 20 fired bullet/bullet fragment
with rifled and unrifled firearm brought for firearm linkage in
Ballistics Division of Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CBI),
New Delhi. Test firing with the available firearm was carried
out and at least two bullets from each barrel or at least two
test specimens were collected, marked for recognition (Figure
6). Debris from bullets/bullets fragments was removed. Bullet/
bullet fragment having biological fluids/residue were handled
with gloves, eye wear, and rinsed in hypo chlorate solution prior
to any other examination. Swabs, moistened with methanol,
lightly wiped over the surface, talking care not to damage
individual characteristics. Stubborn residue were removed by
placing the item in an ultrasonic cleaner, rinsed with methanol
and allowed to dry (Figure 7). After the initial treatment with
crime bullets/bullets fragments were examined for rifling
marks-class characteristics under the comparison microscope.
The following parameters were ascertained (Table 1):
a) Direction of rifling (right/left)
b) Number of lands and grooves
c) Groove width/land width
d) Twist of rifling
Compared class characteristic data with the available
data and ascertained the probable types of firearm involved.
Comparison of class characteristic rifling marks on test fired
bullets with crime bullets under comparison microscope with
specific reference to number of lands and grooves, direction/
angle of rifling, land width as well as groove width whether
similar or otherwise or insufficient. If class characteristics on
test and crime bullets are similar, then examine and compare
individual characteristics. Fragmented bullet even having only
one land and groove for tallying class characteristics should
also be compared with test bullets for individual characteristic
marks. Examine and compare individual characteristic marks
present on all lands and grooves on test bullets in case of rifled
firearm and striation marks on test bullets/specimen in case of
unrifled firearms and identify similar individual characteristic
marks on them. Compared inter-se individual characteristic
marks present on crime bullet/bullet fragment whether similar
or otherwise or insufficient to ascertain number of firearms
involved. Photomicrographs showing individual characteristic
matching were taken, duly labeled, and marked (Figure 8 & 9).
Markings on twenty successively fired bullets and expended
cartridge cases were examined under digital comparison
microscope. The fired samples were compared to the crime
bullets by conducting test fires. Class characteristics like
direction of twist and individual characteristics like striation
marks were compared using comparison microscope (Figure
10). Markings among different manufacturers of ammunition
differed significantly even between consecutively fired bullets.
From an analysis of striation marks on landmarks, the surfaces
of the bore near the breech end area were eroded within twenty
fired rounds which is in accordance to  Diameter, weight and/
or velocity of bullets will affect the reproducibility of striations
on landmarks. A smaller number of striations were observed on
the small diameter bullets. It was found that the caliber of the
received samples were 7.65mm and 0.315”/8mm. By comparing
the striation marks the sample was declared match or no match,
which leaded to firearm linkage. When comparisons were made
between firearms and fired ammunition the results can read
as follows: Exhibit (bullet) was identified as having been fired
from Exhibit 2 (firearm) (Figure 11). This conclusion is reached
after all class characteristics agree and a sufficient correlation
between individual characteristics is found. Exhibit (bullet) was
not fired from Exhibit 2 (firearm). These conclusions are reached
if class characteristics don’t match .
A bullet is slightly larger in diameter than the bore diameter
of the barrel in which it is designed to be fired. The bore diameter
is the distance from one land to the opposite land in a barrel.
As a result, a rifled barrel will impress a negative impression of
itself on the sides of the bullet. The rifling pattern in the barrel
that fired a particular bullet can be determined by counting the
number of groove or land impressions around the circumference
of the bullet. Then, by holding the nose of the bullet pointing
away from you, the direction the impressions run away from
you (either to your left or right) determines the direction of
twist. If the rifling impression pattern on the bullet matches the
rifling pattern in the barrel of the questioned firearm, the next
step is to measure the rifling impressions on the bullet (Figure
12-15). No two firearms, even those of the same make and
model and made consecutively by the same tools, will produce
the same markings on a bullet or a cartridge When bullets are
compared to standards from a given barrel the pitch to the rifling impressions can be a means to eliminate the bullet as having
been fired from the firearm. If the angle disagrees with the angle
found on standards, then the comparison will be a negative
one based on those class characteristics. The problem with this
is that it is hard to accurately measure the pitch. Unless there
is a noticeable difference in the pitch, it can be difficult to use
this class characteristic as a means of elimination. As a result,
firearm examiners rarely measure the rifling impression pitch
Markings on twenty successively fired bullets and expended
cartridge cases were examined. Markings among different
manufacturers of ammunition differed significantly even
between consecutively fired bullets. This study shows that there
are identifiable features on the surfaces of bullets that can link
them to the barrel that fired them . Exhibit (bullet) was
identified as having been fired from firearm (Figure 17-20). This
conclusion is reached after all class characteristics agree and a
sufficient correlation between individual characteristics is found.
20 samples were examined under digital comparison microscope
in which fired suspected samples were compared to the crime
bullets by conducting test firing [16-19]. Class characteristics
like direction of twist and individual characteristics like striation
marks were compared using comparison microscope. It was
found that the caliber of the received samples were 7.65mm
and 0.315”/8mm. By comparing the striation marks the sample
was declared match or no match, leading to firearm linkage [20-
25]. Results of this study have provided the forensic science
community with additional supportive documentation in the
field of firearm and tool mark identification, especially as it
pertains to the identification of bullets fired from consecutively
rifled barrels .
Central Statistical Agency (2014) Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Federal Ministry of Health (2010) Health Sector Development Program of Ethiopia (HSDP).
Bax M, Flodmark O, Tydeman C (2007) Definition and classification of cerebral palsy: From syndrome toward disease. Glasgow, Dev Med Child Neurol 109: 39-41.
WHO: Guidelines on basic newbornresuscitation? (2012) World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Lawn JE, Cousens S, Zupan J (2005) Lancet Neonatal Survival Steering Team. 4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why? Lancet365: 891-900.
Shireen N, Nahar N, Mollah AH (2009) Risk factors and short-term outcome of birth asphyxiated babies in Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Bangladesh Journal of Child Health33(3):83-89.
World Health Organization (2013) World Health Statistic.
World Health Organization (2006) The International Classification of Disease-10th Revision, Thai Modification. Ministry of public health Bureau of policy and strategy office of the permanent secretary 2: 265.
Casey D (2013) Investing in Survival: Enhancing the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Yekatit 12 Hospital;A Final Report for UNICEF’s Next Generation; New York, USA.
Roberto A, Annalisa P, Maria D (2004) Perinatal asphyxia in the term newborn. Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine 3(2).
Central Statistical Agency (2013) Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency Population Projection of Ethiopia for All Regions at Wereda Level from 2014-2017. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Farhana T, Arjumand R, Shabina A (2004) Risk Factors Associated with Birth Asphyxia in Rural District Matiari, Pakistan: A Case Control Study. International Journal of Clinical Medicine5:1430-1441.
Ibrahim NA, Muhye A, Abdulie S(2007) Prevalence of Birth Asphyxia and Associated Factors among Neonates Delivered in Dilchora Referral Hospital, in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Clinics Mother Child Health14: 279.
Bilkisu G, Muhammad S, Abdullahi M (2015) Prevalence and Risk Factors for Perinatal Asphyxia as Seen at a Specialist Hospital in Gusau, Nigeria. SubSaharan African Journal of Medicine 2(2).
Dongol S, Singh J, Shrestha S, Shakya A (2010) Clinical Profile of Birth Asphyxia in Dhulikhel Hospital: A Retrospective Study. Nepal. J Nep Paedtr Soc 30(3):141-146.
Chayasak P, Prisana P (2011) Risk Factors Associated with Birth Asphyxia in Phramongkutklao Hospital. Thailand. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology19: 165-171.
Rehana M, Yasmeen M, Farrukh M (2013) Risk factors of birth asphyxia; Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan. j ayub med collabbottabad 19(3).
Olusegun J, Victor I, Gabriel A (2016) Clinico laboratory determinants of outcome among babies with perinatal asphyxia in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics3(2):409-415.
Üzel H, Kelekçi S, Devecioğlu C, Güneş A, Yolbaş I (2012) Neonatal asphyxia: A study of 210 cases Dicle Medical School, Turkey. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Investigations 3(2): 194-198.
Bahubali GB, Vishnu BB, Ramachandra R, Nandakumar S, Adhisivam B(2013)Antenatal and intrapartum risk factors for perinatal asphyxia: A case control study. JIPMER, Puducherry 605006 India. Curr Pediatr Res 17(2): 119-122.