Differentiation between Eye Shape Database
of the males and female’s population in
Dalia Abd Elwhab HassanSahar1*, Mostfa AbdAllah abd Elalim1, Ibrahim Mohamed2 and Sarah A Khater3
1Department of ophthalmology, Beni-Suef University, Egypt
2Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Beni-Suef University, Egypt
3Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Misr University for Science & technology, Egypt
Submission: June 23, 2019; Published: July 25, 2019
*Corresponding author:Dalia Abd Elwhab Hassan Sahar, Department of ophthalmology, Beni-Suef University, Egypt
How to cite this article:Dalia Abd Elwhab HassanSahar, Mostfa AbdAllah abd Elalim, Ibrahim Mohamed, Sarah A Khater. Differentiation between Eye
Shape Database of the males and female’s population in Beni-Suef “Egypt”. J Forensic Sci & Criminal Inves. 2019; 12(2): 555834.
Face recognition is an enormous field comprised of huge processes of investigation and examination-based methods. Every year the endeavored arrangements develop in multifaceted nature and execution times. Methods: A sum of 100 subjects (49males and 51 females) ranging from 15 to 30 years old were randomly chosen from the population of faculty of medicine, Beni Suef University, Egypt. The eye width and intercanthal distance of each subject were measured for eye shape classification. SPSS analysis suggested that there was significant differences in the types of inter eye distance (p<0.05) amongst the males and females.
There was a statistically significant difference between males and females regarding the mean width of fissure (P-value=0.017) however no statistically significant linear correlation between age and the other estimated measures as width of fissure, interpalpebral distance and intercanthal distance. Also, there was a statistically significant linear positive moderate correlation between width of fissure and interpalpebral distance and intercanthal distance. This study also highlighted that gender plays a significant role across the types of inter eye distance.
Conclusion: An eye shape database representing the males and female’s population in Egypt is possible and can be used for forensic identification purpose.
In most recent years, the utilization of observer recognizable proof has assumed an imperative job in catching criminal sunder police examination. With the absence of physical evidence, eyewitness identification and testimony has become a strongly favorable form of evidence in the court of law . During the investigation process involving eyewitness, the eyewitness testimony is required, with the assist of a forensic artist, to make a facial composite of the perpetrator for facial or photographic identification. Facial identification is a process whereby matching is conducted between the composite constructed according to eyewitness description and facial photographs obtained from the criminal database. Before, forensic artists with refined meeting and drawing skills are assigned to do this .
Face recognition is a massive field comprised of huge
processes of investigation and examination-based methods.
Every year the endeavored arrangements ascend in trouble and affecting occasions. Most hard field in the image processing is face detection and recognition system, many methods and techniques have been projected and developed in this regard, but still there is a huge room for new and effective work .
The use of eye recognition as biometric identification is often preferred due to its accuracy and reliability. Another advantage is the eyes are protected and remain reliably unchanged for decades as compared to fingerprints that are constantly exposed and liable to damage. As one of the most important features of the human face, eye detection plays an important role in face recognition and facial expression analysis. As compared to other
facial features, eyes are relatively stable feature and thus it is
important to notice eyes before the detection of other facial
In latest years, extensive amount of research has been carried
out to detect, analyze and recognize different human faces and
their features. Eye detection applications are used for eye-gaze
tracking, iris detection, video conferencing, auto-stereoscopic
displays, face detection and recognition, etc. Aside from this, eye
recognition can likewise be utilized in the field of security for
login purposes and furthermore by police for criminal records.
Research in the field of biometrics and particularly in the field
of facial recognition have made it computationally attainable to
define and carry out eye recognition scientifically, computerize
the procedure and thus scan large volume of facial images in
brief time frame for simple and brisk recovery of data/features
There are numerous kinds of eyes; shape like wide set eyes
which have the inter canthal distance (distance between the
eyes) that is bigger than the width of one eye . Previously,
contrast, close-set eyes are named those whereby the width of
one eye is bigger than the intercanthal distance . Prominent
or protruding set eyes are eyes that bulge out far forward from
the eye socket and tend to dominate the whole facial component
of the individual . The inverse is noted for profound set eyes
where the eyes are pushed over into the orbital cavity and
gives off an impression of being indented internal . If the
eyelid covers with the crease or eye socket of an individual, the
individual is said to have hooded eyes .
In Malaysia, the utilization of photofit was made known when
it was connected on account of hijack, rape and murder of Nurin
Jazlin in 2007 and, in the UK, it was utilized in the kidnapping of
banker Peter Shaw’s case in 2002 . This research looked into
gender and age parameters; eye shapes across both genders and
also the eye shapes from population ranging between15 and 30
A total of 100 subjects, 49Male and 51 females were included
in the study. Sample size was calculated and determined from
PASS 2008 (platform as a service , sample size calculator.
Subjects were randomly selected from ophthalmology clinicfaculty
of medicine- Beni Suef University ranging from 15-30
years old. Subjects were also required to be of good health with
the absence of any hereditary anomalous influencing the eye
and have never experienced any eye plastic surgery that could
influence the appearance of the original eye shape. During the
collection of samples, subjects were required to remove any eye
frill, for example, eyeglasses and contact lenses. They were also
required to remove any eye make-up. This was to ensure that
such artificial accessories do not affect the original appearance
of the eye.
Once the subjects had fulfilled all the inclusive factors, they
were obligatory fill in a consent letter. After removal of all eye
accessories, subjects were then asked to sit upright on a chair
with no humpback. A scale measurement ruler was held by the
subject’s dominant hand beside his/her own eyes to be as a
calibrator. Subjects were then asked to be relaxed, ensuring no
facial expression that could modify the original eye shape .
Eye spacing or intercanthal distance and width of both eyes
were measured using a scale measurement ruler for calibration
purposes. The measurements were taken in inches (inch) to
two decimal places. Measurements were repeated twice, and an
average reading was taken. One observer was involved for the
measurements as to prevent any inter-values errors. Similar
instruments and protocols were applied throughout to amplify
consistency of the measurements. The measurements were:
Pupillary distance (1), Intercanthal distance (2) and eye width
(3) are illustrated in Figure 1.
All measurements were recorded in the form of numerical
data and displayed in the form of a table. Percentage of each eye
shape were calculated and illustrated in the form of a graph.
Results were then recorded as nominal data and transferred into
SPSS 12.0  for statistical analysis. Normality distribution
of the data was tested before parametric tests were conducted.
Chi square test of independence (p<0.05) was then used to
test the types of inter eye distance among races, sexes and age.
Independent t-test was used to evaluate the inter eye distance
measurement among sexes.
A total of 100 subjects (49males and 51 females) ranging
from 15 to 30 years old were randomly chosen from the
population of faculty of medicine, Beni suef University, Egypt.
The eye width and intercanthal distance of each subject were
measured for eye shape classification. The mean of the width
of fissure was 11.37 with standard deviation 2.8, the mean of
the inter palpebral distance was 62.58 with standard deviation
2.76 and the mean of the intercanthal distance was 32.57 with
standard deviation 2.48.
Across sex, this study showed that there was a statistically
significant difference between males and females regarding
the mean width of fissure (P-value=0.017) as shown in Table 1.
There was no statistically significant linear correlation between
age and the other estimated measures as width of fissure,
inter palpebral distance and intercanthal distance. There was
a statistically significant linear positive moderate correlation
between width of fissure and inter palpebral distance and
intercanthal distance as shown in Table 2.
This study featured the types of inter eye distance
across sexes (male and female) and age range (15 to 30). It
was recognizable that there was no difference in types of inter
eye distance between male and female, but they do differ in
measurement even within the same type of inter eye distance.
Because of presence a statistically significant difference between
males and females regarding the mean width of fissure, binary
logistic regression was run to predict sex from width of fissure as
shown in Table 3 that female is the reference category. Inverting
the odds ratio for width of fissure one unit increase in fissure
width will increase the presumption of being female by 1.2. (By
another words one unit decrease of the fissure width make the
presumption, of being male equal 0.837).
Across sex, this study showed that there was a statistically
significant difference between males and females regarding the
mean width of fissure (P-value=0.017). While in another study
there was no significant result for types of inter eye distance
between males and females .
This was explained by, since the genes that are associated with
skin pigmentation in homo sapiens are located on chromosomes
1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 22; and the 23rd pair
is the sex chromosome, this could likely indicate that the genes
controlling the types of inter eye distance is not present in the
sex chromosome. It is likely present in the autosome or even in
the Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA). The absence of correlation
of types of inter eye distance between sexes is supported by
previous studies that looked into the different loci on the sex
chromosome X and Y. For example, hemophilia, high blood
pressure, congenital night blindness, Glucose- 6-Phosphate-
Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and color blindness loci
was only found in chromosome X, whereas, the Y chromosome
contains the loci of the Sex Determining Region Y (SRY) gene
The distinction noted here could be because of hereditary
varieties. There are around 3 billion nucleotides in a human body
and each individual differs by an average of 2 to 3 million base
pairs. Such huge contrasts in the hereditary pool definitely cause
some type of varieties among people [15,16] upheld this finding
as in their study, 88%-90% of hereditary variety between every
person and 10%-12% of variety among various populaces were
distinguished. This suggests that the differences in inter eye
distance measurement among genders were valid and justified
Based on the results, these measurements could potentially
be a useful tool in the face mapping process during facial
reconstruction. The data collected from this study can be used
as a preliminary database for further research in the field and
Female is the reference category.
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