In shooting incident, components of bullet were separated after firing through the ordinary windowpane. In this situation, it is very difficult to interpret and correlate the elements of glass and fragments of bullet found on or surrounding the target were fired through the glass target or any other hard target at the place of occurrence.
In present investigation, standard 8mm/.315”, 9mm, .303”, .380”, 7.62x39mm and 7.62x51mm caliber projectiles were fired on commercial glass targets by respective regular firearms in the laboratory. It is observed that typical dimensions of lead core and jacketed portions were separated after fired through glass pane. The lead core and jacketed portions of soft nose bullets were either mutilated or deformed conditions. Similarly, other jacketed bullets also got deformed at nose portion without fragmentation of jacketed portions. In this paper, authors have been analyzed the nature and patterns of fired bullets or its components in the significance of forensic ballistics experts, crime scene managers, law enforcement of agencies etc.
Keywords: Glass Targets, Soft Nose Bullet, Jacketed Bullet, Ballistics Expert
While sending forensic exhibits relating to firearms and ammunition to the forensic laboratory, Ballistics experts are frequently asked to determine the distance of firing, type and caliber of bullet, from which firearm it was fired. Practically, ballistics expert may compare the test-fired bullet directly with the questioned bullets, whose type and behavior are to be estimated . Often the examination becomes easy for the forensic examiner when the bullet is got intact, and not in deformed or mutilated form or when some portions of the jacket missing are collected from the place of occurrence or the bullets recovered from the body of victims [2-4]. A review of the literature showed that comprehensive study on the various forensic ballistics test have been made in the past, but these were mostly linkages of crime bullets with the test bullets.
It has been stated and interpreted the made of fracture on terms of dynamical stress field in perforation of glass pane by bullet impact but they studied the perforation effect of .303”, .32’, .38” & .22” caliber bullets on the commercial glass sheets . It is also stated that the perforation craters have always as well-
defined shape with more or less constant semi angle which was
independent of the projectile caliber, velocity and thickness of target material . Earlier many workers undertook the study
of the different projectiles on different targets by ammunition of
Indian and foreign origin employing the well-known techniques and targets, but the study has not been done on different bullet fired through the different firearm on glass pane [7-8].
The crack should be entitled on the impact side as a ring rack which subsequently propagates following a dined trajectory just as in case .
The phenomena of penetration of bullet from the ordinary windowpane with different thickness available in India has been used in the present study and behavior of fired bullets through the glass is discussed in further study. A small arms bullets is cylinder conical in shape and endowed with a high rate of spin. When such type of bullet traverses a glass target, it makes a considerable difference and modified the basic values of various parameters.
Low as well as high velocity weapons of different calibers
with respective ammunition such as, 9mm, .32”, .380”, .303”,
.315”, 7.65x51mm, and 7.62x39mm caliber were test fired on
2mm thickness of glass pane which was hold in perpendicular to
the direction of muzzle end of weapons.
The whole firing arrangement was made on heavy wooden
carrying firing table. The controlled distance between glass pane
and weapons were kept fixed about 5 meters keeping 90-degree
angle to the muzzle of the gun. Recovered bullets and their
jacketed portions were recovered from the bullet recovery box
for further forensic analysis (Figure 1-65).
It is observed that maximum energy was utilized by soft nose
bullet while penetration through glass pane. The physical and
microscopic examination of soft nose bullets revealed the typical
mushroomed belt mutilated inwards direction near the jacketed
portion and these were deformed and mutilated like toothpaste.
This type of phenomena is known as tooth paste phenomena.
It is also noted that, the jackets of the bullets were recovered
in close range due to their light weight and lead core were fond
much ahead on the way of trajectory of the projectiles.
The typical mushroomed shapes of lead core as well
remaining jacketed portions, deformed bullets at nose portion
were found. This type of phenomena was found when the
jacketed, non-jacketed, semi jacketed bullets were fired through
the brittle materials like glass pane. The main cause behind
this phenomena that, during the perforation of bullet (may be
jacketed or non-jacketed) in the glass pane target, fine sharp
edges of glass particles moving towards the back side of glass
with high speed in conical shape manner and jacket or nose
of bullet becomes mushroomed inwards. Hence, the ballistics
expert, crime scene manager should be aware about the shape of
projectiles after passing through various targets, automobile etc.
In shooting incident of glass pane, present study may be useful
to collect corroborative support at the crime spot. A 9mm caliber
jacketed pistol bullet was fired through glass pane, as a result
blunt nose portion was observed with minute glass particles
were adhered on it.
Figure 38 showed that bullet fired through a regular selfloading
(7.65x51mm) rifle on brick block having size about 10-
inch x 4 inch. Figure 39-41 showed the bullet fired through .303”
rifle on hard surface of brick block. Gunshot hole produced by
soft nose bullet of 8mm caliber on poly coated thin film glass
pane as shown in Figure 42 The hole produced by .303” caliber
on 2mm thickness of aluminum plate is shown in Figure 43.
In a crime scene, during night an unidentified person fired
from outside of iron gate and two impact of bullet were found on
inside wall portion to terrorism the house owner. Said gunshot
holes found present on the wall were shown in Figure 44. On
inspection of scene of crime, it is also noted that there are two
holes, lower one shows the main hole caused due to lead core
and upper one may be produced due to fragmented jacket of
bullet. It is noted that lead core is found separated from jacketed
In another crime incident, one inebriated neighbor of victim
was entered in the house and fired a shot on victim but due to
victim’s presence of mind the shot was missed and hit to wooden
showcase. In this case the weapon was 7.65mm improvised
weapon with fully jacketed standard bullet. This suspected hole
is shown in Figure 45.
In a recent crime case, visited in the capital of India that an
accused indiscreetly fired three shots from front side on the
victim seated inside vehicle near the driver’s seat. The victim
presents in the car got succumbed serious injuries. In this case
also the accused has used 7.65mm improvised pistol. The holes
produced by 7.65mm jacketed bullet is shown in Figure 46. It
is observed that there are three holes marked by crime scene
manger as exhibit H3, H4 & H5 as shown in Figure 46.
In another incidence of firing on a car, an accused while
driving the bike fired on a person seated in rear seat of moving
car from backside. The weapon of offence was 8mm/.315” bore
country made pistol. The hole produced by 8mm soft nose bullet
on back portion of car is shown in Figure 47. In this case, it is
observed that keyhole effect by 8mm bullet is clearly shown.
Figure 48-50 show the holes caused due to firing through iron
gate was took place in plastic manufacturing factory. Figure 48
shows close up photo of gunshot firing and Figure 49&50 shows
entry and exit gunshot holes respectively.
A firing took place on a famous Indian brand car and shooter
has fired through front side of car in open market. In this case,
the shooter fired a shot on the car at front side. Fortunately, the
person sited inside the car was saved with Bruce injuries. The
Figure 51 & 52 shows the bullet hole by 7.65mm bore improvised
pistol on car seat cushion made from mild Rexene material. Here,
the diameter of bullet hole was very small due to elastic property
Figure 53 shows that a shooting incident was took place in
area of open market. The close observation of Figure 53 shows
that the bullet hole was produced on steel container and its
edges are inverted. Some unidentified criminals fired on leather
shoe shop and looted all money from the shop owner. The hole
created by 7.65mm improvised pistol are shown Figure 54-56.
The hole produced by improvised pistol on rear seat of Maruti
car as shown in Figure 57. Here small diameter of hole is clearly
shown. Figure 58 shows the hole caused due to firing took place
on windowpane. It is revealed that beveled effect on glass clearly shows that it could be fired from outside. The typical shape of
bullet hole produced by 9mm semi-automatic pistol on brick
wall as shown in Figure 59.
In another shooting incident indiscriminate firing was took
place on Maruti-Zen car Figure 60. There were Minimum four
bullet holes present on it. One hole was present on front rightside
door shown in Figure 61. The remaining three irregular
holes found on front right side of the car as shown in Figure 62.
One clear bullet hole found to be circular on the tin coated by
paint as shown in Figure 63. The bullet hole on broken material
like glass windowpane was found on front seat as shown in
Figure 64. The close-up photograph of hole caused by bullet with
improvised 7.65mm pistol on body of car.
Examinations of fired/drecove4red bullets, part of bullets,
lead core, core material, and steel cores were having pertinent
characteristics of tool marks in the form of striation with their
fingerprint’s impression present on the lead core which can
identify with firearm, type of target. It is also found that the
metallic splinters were formed to be roughly of the shape of the
missing portion of the bullet jacket and front portions of the
bullet jackets were mushroomed and their jacket portion were
mushroomed inwards Figures 3,5-9,31-35. Their characteristics
and unique deformations and mushroomed inwards at upper
end of jacketed side only found when they were fired on glass
target by low and high velocity weapon.
Figure 1-12 showed deformed and fragmented bullets of
8mm/.315’ caliber fired through intermediate targets like glass
pane. It also revealed that jacketed portions were mushroomed
inwards and lead core were bended at mid portions. In some
cases, lead cores were visible at rear end of bullets. Microscopic
observation showed the glass particles were adhered on the outer
body of projectiles. Figure 13 showed the jacketed portion of
7.62x51mm caliber SLR bullets. It also showed the mushroomed
phenomena. Its lead core has been separated from the main
body of bullets. Figure 14 showed the deformed and jacketed
portion fo7.62x39mm caliber ofAK-47 rifle bullets. Steel core
also distinctly visible. Figure 15 &16 showed the fragmented
& jacketed portion of SLR bullets. Figure 17-21 showed the
jacketed bullets of SLR. It is also found that some deformation
at nose, body portions. Here microscopic observation shoes the
sign of glass firing from its glass particles. Figure 22-36 showed
different deformed and fragmented portion of jacketed bullets of
various caliber. It is also observed that nose portions have been
deformed and glass particles are adhered on it. Original shape of
bullet has been changed. Figure 37 showed a jacketed bullet of
Glass particles are adhered on it due to low velocity of
bullet may not be deformed. Figure 42-65 shows the different
target material collected from scene of crime took place in
the capital of India. The dimension of bullet hole on the target
material, distance of firing and type of ammunition used in the place of occurrence. It is also observed that normal entry and
exit phenomena produced by the firearm were took place like
size of entry /exit hole, everted/inverted margin at surrounding
the area of the holes etc. presence of gunshot residues (GSR) at
entry and exist of the hole. In most of the cases sufficient amount
of GSR particles were detected at entry of holes and analyzed
by atomic absorption spectrometer. A comparative chart of
different target materials like glass windowpane, brick, wooden
board and metal sheets is given in Table1.
In short, it is concluded that soft nose bullet impacts on glass
target are different from any other target material and exhibited
typical lead bullet and its jacketed portions mushroomed. On
each recovered bullet or target material fine glass particles
were adhered on them. They are having unique and individual
characteristics marks. This type of phenomena may not be
repeated or reproduced at scene of crime from any other
target material. To provide concrete opinion forensic scientist/
ballistic expert should carry out simulation experiment in
the laboratory from same type of target material, firearmammunition
combination. Even same batch of manufactured
ammunition should be used during test experimentation. After
hitting different target, the shape of bullet varies from weapon
to weapon. It also depends upon type of target materials where
the projectile hits. It is also observed that inverted and everted
pattern of gunshot hole found at the S.O.C. agrees with the entry
and exit hole. However, in brittle targets this phenomenon does
Jauhari M (1978) Identification of firearms, ammunition and firearm injures. printed by Manager, govt. Of India press, Nashik and published by the controller of publications, Delhi-54, India Pp. 62-68.
Waghmare NP, Rao MS, Suresh R, (1967) Biswas M Scientific investigation into the behavior of the window glass under bullet impact. presented at 89th Session of Indian Science Congress, Lucknow University, Lucknow, India.