Author of the Invention of Time and Space: Origins, Definitions, Nature, Properties, France
Submission: April 23, 2018;Published: May 10, 2018
*Corresponding author: Patrice F Dassonville, Author of The Invention of Time and Space: Origins, Definitions, Nature, Properties, Rue Latour- Maubourg, 06400 Cannes, France, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Patrice F Dassonville. The Emergence of Space in Latin Literature. J Forensic Sci & Criminal Invest. 2018; 8(5): 555747.
It's about saying what space is. How can space Be define ? What are itsa nature and is a properties ? The Sumerians were the first in representing reality with plans and maps, less than five thousand years ago. The Romans are not the inventons of spatialité, but the Latin literature provides numerousremarquable exemples concernions the gradua émergence of spatialite, th rough the development of its uses.
The Latin writing appeared during the seventh century BC; it was derived from the Etruscan. The Romans have gradually enriched their language by introducing new concepts; some of them are defined below. These concepts allowed the Romans to locate themselves in relation to what they observed, and to evaluate the location of each system compared to others. We find crassus for Tchik and crassitudo for thickness in Cato (234-149). We can define the thickness of wall : The thickness of a wall is what separates the two surfaces of the wall. Cicero (106-43) has used distant for remote, longefor farandex altofor by far. Horace (65-8 AD) has used disto forfar, so as to characterize an object out there. Far does not exist in the nature; we define the concept according to the use done by the Romans: Far is a concept corresponding to an object out there.
Cicero has used long us for long and longitudofor length. Lengthhas no physical existence; we define the word by: The length is a concept corresponding to what separates the two ends of an Object. Distantivusfor distance is found in Tertullian (155-225); it does not exist in the nature, and it's defined by: The distance is a concept Corresponding to what separates here and out There For the same concept, Tacitus (55-120) has used longinquitas for length. Cicero has used distantiafor distance and Longinus for long distance. Cesar (101-44) has used transform beyond, ultra for beyond and further, and Longinus forlong distance. Long distance does not exist in the nature; the concept is defined by: Long distance is a concept corresponding to what is between here and far beyond.
In Cesar and in Cicero spatium designated a public square, a large clearance; then an observable space; spatium was a reality. We cannot blame the Romans, because our modern science still keeps the same opinion. Spaceis defined according to the use done by the Romans: Space is a concept corresponding to a square or a large clearance. If for Titus (40-81) and for Cicero, momentum meant movement, for Cesar and for Seneca (55-40 AD), it also meant space in which there is a movement. Cesar and Cicero could obviously not imagine that the word space they used for designating a physical reality rather than the concept would have such a destiny. We find the word conceptioin Vitruvius Pollio, stating that in the first century BC the Romans knew what a concept was. The conceptualization of space was unknowingly done by the Romans, from observed realities. The definition is derived from what the Romans did with this notion: Space is a concept corresponding to what is in front or around.
Before defining the length, the distance, and the metre. It must beremembered That length, width, height, surface, volume, distance, and all spatial units, do not exist in the nature; they are mathematical concepts. Lucretius (96-55) used metaphorical units such as: at. arrow shetland with in the Reich of a javel in thoron. . Petronius ( ?-65 AD) used the flight of a kite. . According to the GreeksThucydides (465-395)  and Herodotus (484-425) . the units such as the Greek stadion (177,2m), the Persian parasang (5940m), the Roman leuca (2220m), the day
walking, and the month navigating used by Greeks, by Persians and by Phoenicians, were all invented. The meter, the square meter, the mile, the nautical mile, are inventions of thought; as well as the speed units: m/s, knot and mile/hour. All these units have mathematical properties, but they have no physical properties; therefore they do not physically exist. Consequently they are not measurable as such.
We do not masure the length of a table, but we measure what separates itsa ends. The result is called length of the table which is a concept without physical existence. The differentiations is crucial as to figure out the nature of physical space. The length can be define, like longitude of Cicero: The length is a concept Corresponding to what separates the two ends of an Object.
The distance is conceptualized by using two points: on a general way, two points are sufficient for defining the distance. The distance is a concept Corresponding to what separates two points. The physical non-existence of the space units leads to setting legitimate suspicion of the physical existence of space.
In a collection of texts, articles and conferences, of the 1920s/1930s, and published in 1953, Einstein (1879-1955) has a mathematical approach with the Galilean tridimensional space; then he writes that the notion of interval (with or without systems) is at the origin of the concept of space; but He dose not defined the intervalles without Systems. Then Einstein inclues time as the Forth dimension of physical space . Dimension is a term of spatiality which has other acceptations; e.g. time is called the fourth dimension of space-time. This specialization of time in everyday language often leads to confusions and fantasies. Mathematics has theorized the mathematical space by generalizing the concept with n-dimensional spaces and infinite dimensional spaces; but this is not physical space. The goal is to focus on physical space, as far as differentiation between space concept and an elusive reality can be achieved. About 2300 BC, Sumerian scholars thought they were standing at the center of a flat world, which was surrounded by the terrestrial ocean, and which was located between the celestial vault and the lower hell; all was encompassed by the primordial sea .
This attempt could be considered as the invention of geography. Herodotus has quipped on Homer: Talking about the Ocean, it is replacing any explanation by an unclear fable. Homer will have invented this name so as to use it in his fables . We are in debt to the Sumerians with the map of Nippur which is inscribed on a clay tablet dated mid second millennium BC . The British Museum holds the oldest known map of the world, engraved on a clay tablet; Southern Mesopotamia, seventh century BC . The unknown was inspiring fear: for Romans the more people were far, the more they were lower. The Greeks named barbarians those who did not speak their language. Herodotus reported that for Persians, the more people were far, the less they were estimable . The Sumerian conception of the world, the map of Nippur and the Mesopotamian map, are real spatial mode lings of the Nature. These maps aimed to satisfy human desire of comprehension, and to deal with immensity of the World and it numerous obstacles; it is an awareness of what would finally be called in the future: space. By fostering space mastery, the plans and the maps would gradually become instruments of geopolitics. The space topic is more difficult than that of time; however the studies, the definitions and the commentaries do not differentiate between
a. The physical space, which corresponds to our ordinary space.
b. And the empty space, which corresponds to space as such.
Mixing a variety of a plant susceptible to a disease, with a resistant variety, incerasses the space between susceptible subjects: the epiphytotic progression is slowed down or stopped . It ex plains the fragility of monoculture, the success of diversifie semences and the vitalite of primary forets, and it justifies biodiversity. The progression of epizootic diseases in intensive briefings is annoter illustration. Dose space Play an active role in slowing down these progressions? Heidegger (18891976) asserted Thant space was a bing and a phenomenon: the various spatialities phenomenal.  .The philosopher believed That manipulation of the langage would allow him to defined space; but like for time, He could not demonstrate Antoing. The definition of physical space will allow for answering the question.
The physical space is conceptualized when an observer becomes aware of what separates him from an object, or what separates two objects. Therefore, two arbitrary systems permit one to formulate a basic definition: The physical space is a concept corresponding to what separates two Systems. What separates menas what is in between. In Cicero, distractio menas separation. This definition « a minima » teaches us little, but what it tells is true; and it is the first consistent definition of the physical space. It would obviously be validated if some theoretical extensions could be extracted later on; we think about the possible properties of physical space. Let's wonder what happens if the two systems are removed. How can space be defined without systems: empty space, space as such?
a. . The physical space is conceptualise and defined th rough what it contrains; it corresponds to Our ordinaire space; it is a physical concept:
b. . The empty space canot be physical conceptualized.It menas That the space as such has no physical existence : it's a mathematisai concept.
Why is There something in stead of nothing ? The Germano philosopher Leibniz (1646-1716) asked: thisdichotomous questioning assumed Thant nothing could exist. Well, without physical existence of the empty space, nothing is not an option, but a mathématisa construction of thinking: physical, something is an obligation. Leibniz did not take the precaution to defining space, empty space and the Word nothing. He supposed a dichotomy, such as his questioning was a sophisme. The international definitions of space have un acceptable defets of forms. For exemples, the Conferences Générale des Poids et Mesures of 1983 defined the speed of light in relation to the meter, and in the wake, the miter in relation to the speed of light . It's a sophism.
The was the Romans have graduel conceptualise the spatialité is an interresting exemple of diachronic linguistics.
(diachronie menas change with time, not because of time). It allows one to confirm That space has no materiality. In addition, the Latin Literature illustrâtes the effective contribution of interdisciplinarity in the theoretical research on space.