1Department of Zoology, St. Xavier’s College, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
2Department of Zoology, Ranchi University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Submission: July 6, 2022; Published: July 21, 2022
*Corresponding author: Dr. Manoj Kumar, Department of Zoology, St. Xavier’s College, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
How to cite this article:Manoj K, Rakesh R, M P Sinha. XRD Analysis for Characterization of Green Nanoparticles: A Mini Review.Glob J Pharmaceu Sci. 2022; 10(1): 555779. DOI: 10.19080/GJPPS.2022.10.555779.
Plants are one of the richest sources of biomolecules on earth. In the last decade there has been an increasing interest of researchers and scientists on exploration of antimicrobial and medicinal properties of plants. It is with entry and amalgamation of nanotechnology with phytochemistry, which opened new dimensions. Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles mediated by plant extracts emerged rapidly and had significant explorations. The synthesized metallic nanoparticles are characterized for their size, shape and stability using several techniques such as UV-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microsope (SEM), Dynamic light scattering analysis (DLS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of nanoparticles is a comparatively new entry in this list. X-ray diffraction analysis provides concrete information regarding structure and crystalline size of nanoparticles, and it can play pivotal role in characterization of nanoparticles.
One of the world’s richest sources of biomolecules is plants. Researchers and academics have become more and more interested in studying the antibacterial and therapeutic capabilities of plants during the past ten years [1-4].
It is in the last decade when the exploration of medicinal properties of plant extracts attained its peak, nanotechnology came into scenario. Nanotechnology is a science, engineering, and technology which operates at nanoscale, i.e., equal to or below 100 nm. The concept behind the nanoscience and most properly nanotechnology started with a talk entitled ‘There’s plenty of room at the bottom’ delivered by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at California Institute of Technology on December 29, 1959. It is long before the term nanotechnology was used. His talk focused on process where scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Later during his exploration, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology [5-6]. In the last few decades, the idea of synthesis of metallic nanoparticles mediated
by extracts obtained (via polar and non-polar extraction media) from plant parts such as leaves, roots, fruit peals, flowers and whole plant etc. started gaining grounds [7-10]. This idea gained importance and was explored widely by authors and researchers. Plant mediated nanoparticles can be synthesized using several metals such as silver [2,4], zinc , copper  iron  etc. The synthesized nanoparticles then need to be characterized for their properties such as size, shape, stability etc using several techniques such as SEM, UV-Vis, FTIR, DLS, Zeta potential analysis [14,15].
X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of nanoparticles synthesized using plant extract is a rather new implementation of the technique to analysis the characteristic of synthesized nanoparticles [15-17]. The XRD analysis is done to analyse the structure and crystalline size of synthesized nanoparticles. Mehta et al. . in their work characterized the synthesized silver (nano) using XRD. They concluded that the obtained data for 2θ positions identifies the sample as silver crystalline particles having hkl values corresponding to FCC silver. They estimated the crystalline size to be 20 nm, thus confirming the nano scale size of the synthesized particles. Various other workers such as Bykkam,
Anandalakshmi, Ashraf & Abiola et al. [18-21] have reported
successful characterization of metallic nanoparticles synthesized
using plant extracts. The result obtained from XRD analysis cannot
be directly utilized in the study. It needs use of additional software
packages such as PowderX, MATCH! etc .
Ashraf et al.  obtained XRD pattern of silver nanoparticles
using Bruker D8 diffractometer using CuKα radiation (λ=1.54056
Å). They calculated the particle size of the sample using Scherrer’s
Where λ is the wavelength of the x-ray, B is the broadening of
the diffraction line measured as half of its maximum intensity in
radians and θ is Bragg’s diffraction angle. The particle size of the
sample is estimated from the width of the XRD peak .
Presently the XRD is commonly used extensive technique
for characterization of nanoparticles. XRD provides information
regarding the crystalline structure, nature of the phase, lattice
parameters and crystalline grain size. The latter parameter is
estimated by using Scherrer equation (stated earlier) using the
broadening of the most intense peak of an XRD measurement for
a specific sample. The nanoparticles are commonly analyzed in
powder form after drying. The composition of the particles can
be determined by comparing the position and intensity of the
peaks with the reference patterns available from the international
center for diffraction data (ICDD) [23-25].
Thus, it can be concluded that out of many techniques used
for characterization of nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis
provides concrete information regarding structure and crystalline
size of nanoparticles, and it can play pivotal role in characterization
Kumar M, Dandapat S, Kumar A, Sinha MP (2013) Determination of Nutritive value and mineral elements of five-leaf chaste tree (Vitex negundo L.) and Malabar nut (Adhatoda vasica Nees). Academic Journal of Plant Sciences 6(3): 103-108.
Kumar M, Dandapat S, Sinha MP (2014) Plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Adhatoda vasica aqueous leaf extract. The Ecoscan, Special Issue, pp. 30-36.
Kumar M, Dandapat S, Sinha MP (2015) Phytochemical analysis of Growth inhibitory impact of Swertia chirayita aqueous leaf extract against Some Human Pathogens. World Journal of Zoology 10(3): 188-190.
Kumar M, Sinha MP (2017) Green nanotechnology: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Swertia chirayita. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 9(3): 443-448.
Naseer M, Aslam U, Khalid B, Chen B (2020) Green route to synthesize Zinc Oxide nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Cassia fistula and Melia azedarach and their antibacterial potential. Nature: Scientific Reports 10: 9055.
Murthy HCA, Desalegn T, Kassa M, Abebe B, Assefa T (2020) Synthesis of green copper nanoparticles using medicinal plant Hagenia abyssinica (Brace) JF. Gmel. Leaf extract: Antimicrobial Properties. Journal of Nanomaterials.
Mehta BK, Chhajlani M, Shrivastava BD (2017) Green Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by XRD. Journal of Physics.
Bykkam S, Ahmadipour M, Narisngam S, Kalagadda VR, Chidurala SC (2015) Extensive studies on X-ray diffraction of green synthesized nanoparticles. Advances in nanoparticles 4: 1-10.
Anandalakshmi K, Venugopal J, Ramasamy V (2015) Characterization of silver nanoparticles by green synthesis method using Pedalkum murex leaf extract and their antibacterial activity. Applied Nanoscience 6: 399-408.