A Research Proposal of Antibacterial Activity
of Some Volatile Oil Bearing Plants
Veterinary Drug and Animal Feed Administrationa and Control Authority, Ethiopia
Submission: May 26, 2021; Published: June 28, 2021
*Corresponding author: Deresse Bizuwork, Veterinary Drug and Animal Feed Administrationa and Control Authority, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
How to cite this article:Deresse Bizuwork. A Research Proposal of Antibacterial Activity of Some Volatile Oil Bearing Plants . Glob J Pharmaceu Sci. 2021; 8(4): 555744. DOI: 10.19080/GJPPS.2021.08.555744.
The antibacterial activity of essential oil of two Ethiopia plants will be study. The essential oil produced from different parts of plants (coriander and fennel plants) will by measuring MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration), whereas some bacterial strains are used in this study such as follows: Staphylococcus aureus, and klebisela. The two samples used in this experiment have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Extract by different solvents and then examined by GCMS preliminary phytochemical screening. The antibacterial activities of the essential oils will determine.
Medicinal plants contain certain active components, which have been exploited in traditional medical practice for the treatment of various illnesses over the years. Plants of both lower and higher categories are examined to produce active chemical substances with which they defend themselves against foreign agents such as invading microorganisms  Vegetable is an edible component of plants or its part, intended for many purposes of which includes medicinal purposes, commercial purposes . Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a well-known aromatic/medicinal plant, which grows in Mediterranean countries, and possesses a lot of pharmacological activities. In tradicional medicine, seeds are used in the treatment of gastrointestinal problems, rheumatism and joint pains. It has been reported that they exhibit a hypoglycaemic action and influence on carbohydrate metabolism, whereas the antimicrobial effect exhibit both leaves and seeds. Besides, leaves and seeds are used to flavour various commercial foods, as liqueurs, teas, meat products and pickles . Isolation of coriander essential oil using different extraction methods (steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction – SFE) and determination of essential oil compounds (using GC-MS method, in the first place) were investigated in [3,4].
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an annual herbaceous plant belongs to the family Apiaceae. It is widely cultivated throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Fennel herb is being used as a medicinal and economic plant in Asian countries. Survey of published literature revealed that fennel herb and seeds effectively control numerous infectious disorders of bacterial, fungal, viral, mycobacterium, and protozoal origin as well as used antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion, and antioxidant remedy in Europe and Mediterranean areas [5,6]. The different compounds in the oil were found to act in synergistic manner (i.e. more than the mere summation of the actions of the individual compounds). This stresses the importance of using the whole oil (or the whole crude extract) of the seeds in different pharmacological and clinical studies.
The information on antimicrobial activity of given medicinal plants is very poor. Resistance to drugs by microorganisms has increased. This resistance has been attributed to overdose and under dose of drugs due to over counter prescription of drugs, ability of microorganisms to undergo genetic variability (mutation), use of antibiotics in food preservation and general
misuse of drugs . Hence there is need to come up with sensitive
and effective drugs specially using medicinal plants. Therefore,
there is need to carry out proper identification of the medicinal
plants, their antibacterial activity and know their phytochemical
composition to use medicinal plants for treatment purpose.
The synergic effect of coriander and Fennel on bacteria is not
well investigated before and there is need for further research to
be done for all traditional medicinal plants to establish their uses
and the active phytochemicals with medicinal properties. The
information will help bridge the gap between modern medicine
and traditional medicine making it possible to compliment the
Medicinal and aromatic plants constitute a large part of natural
flora and are considered an important resource in various fields
such as the pharmaceutical, flavor and fragrance, perfumery, and
cosmetic industries . At present, more than 80% of the global
population depends on traditional plant-based medications
for treating various human health problems [9,10]. Coriander
(Coriandrum sativum L.) is a well-known aromatic/medicinal
plant, which grows in Mediterranean countries, and possesses a
lot of pharmacological activities. All parts of the plant are edible
but the fresh leaf and the dried seeds are the most common parts
used in cooking. In the Indian traditional medicine, C. sativum
is used in treating the disorders of digestive, respiratory and
urinary systems, as it has diaphoretic, diuretic, carminative and
stimulant activity. In Iranian traditional medicine, C. sativum has
been indicated for several medical problems such as dyspeptic
complaints, loss of appetite, convulsion, anxiety and insomnia
. The basic C. sativum aroma produced by a combination of
the major components, 1, 8-cineole and α-terpinyl acetate. C.
sativum oil is used in food, perfumery, flavor and carminative. In
medicine, it is used as a powerful aromatic, antiseptic, stimulant,
carminative, stomachic, expectorant, antispasmodic and diuretic
. The physiochemical properties of C. sativum essential oil
such as density (25°C), acid value, ester value, and optical rotation
(25°C) were found to be 0.8310, 1.4592, 4.0, 23.7 and +11.5 g/cm3
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) is a major aromatic plant
belonging to the Apiaceae family, which has long been considered
as a medicinal and spice herb. Fennel oil is commonly used as a
favoring agent in food products and as a constituent of cosmetic
and pharmaceutical products; furthermore, its antimicrobial
properties against a wide range of microorganisms have been
well established [14,15]. It has long been known that some
plant essential oils could affect the expression of staphylococcal
exotoxins . Fennel seeds essential oil is used as flavouring
agents in food products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, pickles and
pastries  and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical
products . Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an annual herbaceous plant belongs to the family Apiaceae. It is widely
cultivated throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the
world. Fennel herb is being used as a medicinal and economic
plant in Asian countries. Survey of published literature revealed
that fennel herb and seeds effectively control numerous infectious
disorders of bacterial, fungal, viral, mycobacterium, and protozoal
origin as well as used antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, secretomotor, secretolytic, galactagogue, eye lotion,
and antioxidant remedy in Europe and Mediterranean areas .
Fennel seeds essential oil is used as flavouring agents in food
products such as liqueurs, bread, cheese, pickles and pastries 
and an ingredient of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products .
a) Habit: Fennel is a biennial or perennial herb with erect
stems, when older with hollow internodes.
b) Root: The plant has an elongated and enlarged tap root.
The tap root is yellowish to light brown up to 2.5 cm in diameter,
which is suitable soils can become deeply penetrating, with few
lager laterals but many side rootlets.
c) Stem: There is normally one, erect, stout, main stem
up to 1.5 m occasionally to 2 m, with the base 2-3 cm diameter,
usually profusely branched on the higher portion
d) Fruit: The fruit, a schizocarp, is elliptical, yellowish
brown, 4-8 mm in length and consists of 2 curved mericarps. The
seeds are hairy and yellow brown in color.
Isolation of essential oil from coriander using soxhlet
30g of the cilantro seeds will extracted using 130-150mL
of the solvents at 50-60°C for 3-4 cycles in a Soxhlet extractor
and the crude extract will be concentrated by allowing them
for evaporation. All the filtered extracts will store at -20°C in an
airtight container for further analysis .
Essential Oil yield (%) = Volume of essential oil (g) x Weight
of plant sample (g)
Isolation of essential oil from fennel using soxhlet
100g of dried Foeniculum vulgare seeds will milled to form a
course powder and then extracted with methanol (500ml). The
aqueous extract will prepared by boiling 10g of dried ground seed
in 20ml distilled water for 2h.
Oil content (%) = Volume of the oil x 100% Weight of sample
a. Normally a solid material containing some of the desired
compound is placed inside a thimble made from thick filter paper,
which is loaded into the main chamber of the Soxhlet extractor.
The Soxhlet extractor is placed onto a flask containing the extraction solvent. The Soxhlet is then equipped with a condenser.
b. The solvent is heated to reflux. The solvent vapour
travels up a distillation arm and floods into the chamber housing
the thimble of solid. The condenser ensures that any solvent
vapour cools, and drips back down into the chamber housing the
c. The chamber containing the solid material slowly fills
with warm solvent. Some of the desired compound will then
dissolve in the warm solvent. When the Soxhlet chamber is almost
full, the chamber
d. is automatically emptied by a siphon side arm, with the
solvent running back down to the distillation flask. This cycle may
be allowed to repeat many times, over hours or days.
e. 4. During each cycle, a portion of the non-volatile
compound dissolves in the solvent. After many cycles the desired
compound is concentrated in the distillation flask. The advantage
of this system is that instead of many portions of warm solvent
being passed through the sample, just one batch of solvent is
f. 5. After extraction the solvent is removed, typically by
means of a rotary evaporator, yielding the extracted compound.
The non-soluble portion of the extracted solid remains in the
thimble and is usually discarded.
Paper discs (6mm in diameter) saturated with a 40mg/
mL solution of plant extract were applied to the surface of agar
plates that were previously seeded by spreading 0.1mL of culture
overnight. The plates were incubated overnight at the appropriate
temperature, and the diameter of the resulting zone of inhibition
will measured in millimeters.
Legal’s test: Extracts were treated with sodium nitropruside
in pyridine and sodium hydroxide. Formation of pink to blood red
colour indicates the presence of cardiac glycosides.
Detection of flavonoids
Alkaline reagent test: Extracts were treated with few drops
of sodium hydroxide solution. Formation of intense yellow color,
which becomes colorless on addition of dilute acid, indicates the
presence of flavonoids [26-28].
The expected results will be to identify the synergic effect of
coriander and fennel in selected bacterial to be used for medicinal
purpose. The medicinal essential oil coriander and fennel will be
identified and administered in selected bacterial to establish its
chemical properties by doing lab research. The information from
this study will help to understand the medicinal use of coriander
and fennel will provide basic information for further study and
also bridge the information gap on medicinal plant.
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