A Novel Revolutionary Approach of a
Synthesis and Application of Targeted
Nanosponge Drug Delivery
Parag Raj Behura1* and Vamshi Krishna T
Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India
Submission: May 27, 2021; Published: June 28, 2021
*Corresponding author: Parag Raj Behura, Department of Pharmaceutics, Specialization Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka, India
How to cite this article:Parag R B, Vamshi K T. A Novel Revolutionary Approach of a Synthesis and Application of Targeted Nanosponge Drug Delivery . Glob J Pharmaceu Sci. 2021; 8(4): 555743. DOI: 10.19080/GJPPS.2021.08.555743.
The novel and development of nanotechnology have brought a term targeted drug delivery system. Targeting a molecule to a specific site has brought a certain pharmacological action. Nanosponge is a part of nanotechnology which is both hydrophilic and lipophilic in nature. They are colloidal carriers which improve the aqueous solubility of the poorly soluble drug by enhancing and improving the physical and chemical stability and improving the permeability and bioavailability in the body tissues. Nanosponge are tiny sponges which are in the size of colloidal sizes and nanosized cavity. There general application can be seen in oral administration, parenteral administration, topical administration and available in the form of hydrogel. The current review discussion various methods of synthesis and application of nanosponges.
Keywords: Nanosponge; Hydrophilic; Lipophilic; Aqueous solubility; Route of administrationm
A Nanosponge Synthesis and application can determine the helpful outcome of treatment of several Cancer therapies, Breast cancer, inflammation, Brain tumor, Antifungal therapy, and treating poison in blood as adsorbent. Generally, it is difficult to understand the chemistry behind the targeted drug delivery system. Whether how much drug dose to be given and to prevent overdose [1,2]. So, a new term “Nanosponge” is introduced where it is the resulting combination of the Polymer and crosslinker. It has a size of about 50nm or less than that. They can withstand a temperature of about 300 degrees high temperature. They encapsulate the molecular drug which is lipophilic in nature by engulfing it within its core when it covers the molecular drug it forms a hydrophilic covering open structure like a membrane [3,4]. For example, Nanosponge likes Sodium alginate Poly-L-Lysine where it encapsulates the Antisense oligonucleotides drug molecule within its core and releases the drug for cancer therapy viral infection pathological-disorders. This type of study is used for Pharmacokinetic satisfaction on an in-vitro in vivo model called mice. Nanosponges are nano solid in form and can be formulated in the form of oral, Parenteral, or inhalational dosage forms. For oral administration, these are prepared in a mixture of excipients. Which is compressed on either tablet. For Parenteral administration, these are easily mixed with saline and other
aqueous solutions. For Topical dosage form, Nanosponge can be effectively incorporated into the topical hydrogel.
When the Nanosponge-based formulation (Polymer +Crosslinker) in the encapsulated-based form. These can be either in the form of injection or Cream or lotions applied on the skin. It gets penetrated through the minute skin pore cavities leading to reach the carrier the Blood flowing RBCs which tends to bind it to RBCs cellular component. thereby reaching the desired targeting cell by giving almost Pharmacological action.
Eg: Crosslinkers like Epichlorohydrate encapsulate the
drug captopril which is prepared by the method Solvent-based
Stage 2: which is also known as the “Modified nanosponges”
are categorized on the basis of specific properties. Such as
fluorescence and electric charge Eg: Crosslinker like carboxylated
nanosponges encapsulates the drug Antiviral agent Acyclovir .
Stage 3: Which is also known as the “stimuli-responsive
nanosponges”. They are categorized by external changes in the
environment such as temperature, Redox condition, and pH Eg:
Glutathione bioresponsive cyclodextrin nanosponges [19,20].
Stage 4: This is also known as the “Molecularly imprinted
nanosponges “ which is categorized on the basis of the high
selectivity of specific molecules. Eg: Biomimetic estimation
of glucose using molecular and molecular imprinted polymer
This type of technique involves melting up of a combination.
Crosslinking agents with cyclodextrin where it’s mixed at a
maximum speed with the help of a magnetic stirrer at a very
high temperature where the fusion of both cyclodextrin and the
crosslinking agent takes place. This technique is also called as
fusion method. The mixture is left for cooling and washing is done
to remove the unreacted substrates .
This technique involves only solvents, where a polar solvent
like Dimethylsulfoxide or dimethylformamide (DMSO/DMF).
Finally, crosslinker like carbonyl-based nanosponges is added in
the ratio of 1:4. The reaction was maintained at a temperature of
10 degrees celsius for refluxing time for about 1-48hr. Once the
solution temperature is settled down to 30-degree celsius and the
demineralized water is added to remove the unreacted product
and thereby product is filtered under vacuum. The final product
is purified with the help of the soxhlet apparatus by the addition
of ethanol to it. Later after a certain longer period of time of
purification. The final product is subjected to drying .
It is the simplest method compared to melt-based synthesis.
where this technique exhibits the four-time reduction in the
reaction time. It makes the nanosponges property a higher degree
of crystallization and shows homogenous distribution with the
This technique involves Ester-based cyclodextrin and Diphenyl
carbonate are taken together and put in a vial. Then the vial is
kept in an ultrasound bath consisting of water in it and heated
at a temperature of 90 degrees celsius and sonicated for about 5
hr. Further purification and crystallization are done by washing it
with Demineralized water to remove the unreacted product. The
final product is filtered with the help of a vacuum, and it is further
purified and dried with the help of soxhlet apparatus consisting
of ethanol .
In one of the articles it is claimed that the GSH-responsive
cyclodextrin-based nanosponge encapsulated the drug
doxorubicin showed therapeutic action and efficacy in human
Hep G2 cells (in-vitro) and organotypic cultures of rat precisioncut
liver slices (PCLs, ex-vivo) .
Polymeric nanosponge tends to absorb the membrane
damaging toxins which leads to a diversion away from cellular
targets (In-vivo study) in mouse, the nanosponge tends to heal
the toxicity of staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin (α-toxin) which
can increase the survival capacity of the toxin of mice  (Figure
In the case of skin absorption cyclodextrin is crosslinked
with the pyromellitic dianhydride which tends to give a semisolid
formulation that is applied on the skin. Diclofenac is an antiinflammatory
drug. which is typically formulated as an ointment
form because of its composition. It is able to penetrate the
dermal skin. This cyclodextrin nanosponge does not affect during
penetration of diclofenac into the skin. But diclofenac dose can be
controlled by the addition of pyromellitic dianhydride .
A major challenging nowadays drug. which are used in
the treatment of cancer because of their low solubility and low
permeability one such example is paclitaxel anticancer drug which
belongs to BCS IV (Biopharmaceutical classification system) where
carbonyldiimidazolebased cyclodextrin nanosponge encapsulate
the drug paclitaxel and take it to the desired targeted cell to show
its pharmacological action .
In recent study which were introduced by Occon optics.
The newly equipped RAM-SERS-SP surface enhanced Raman
spectroscopy. Subtrates tend to use a proprietary gold-silver
nanosponge alloy to produce highly sensitive tracing capacity
of Raman spectroscopy which in turn helps in detection of
explosives, food safety, narcotics and biological research. Here,
silver only SERS substrates work with best with 532nm gold.
Substrates are better suited to 785nm. Both silver gold only SERS
substrates combined work with 638nm raman excitation .
Three types of Cyclodextrin nanosponges were prepared by
crosslinking. α ,β or γ cyclodextrin with carbonyl diimidazole .
In this type of study cyclodextrin based nanosponge formulation
were developed as oxygen delivery system. For this purpose, three types of cyclodextrin based nanosponge were suspended in water
and were saturated with oxygen and in-vitro characterized. The
efficacy was tested on vero cells. This is to check the capacity or
ability to release oxygen in presence or in the absence of ultrasound
was determined overtime. Cyclodextrin nanosponge or hydrogel
combination systems were used for oxygen permeation through
silicone membrane .
In one of the research article, it was found that the two types of
cellular nanosponges which are derived from plasma membrane
from human lung epithelial type II cells or human macrophages.
These nanosponges show some protein receptors, both are
identified and unidentified, required by SARS-CoV-2 for cellular
entry. Then there is the incubation of nanosponges with SARSCoV-
2 takes place which gets neutralized and was unable to infect
cells. The nanosponge platform is agonistic to viral mutations. The
information on the target of the virus remains the identified host
cell; the nanosponge will be able to neutralize the virus .
The β-cyclodextrin-based carbonate nansponges are compiled
with the superparamagnetic ferrosoferric oxide nanoparticle. In
one of the articles it was claimed that the potential removal of
Dinotefuran from waste water. The nanosponges – Dinotefuran
inclusion were evaluated by Transmission electron microscopy,
Energy dispersive spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning
electron - microscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray Powder
diffraction and Proton nuclear magnetic resonance .
In one of the article, it was encapsulation  of Gammaoryzanol
showed a good protection from photodegradation.
 Gamma-oryzanol. This is a ferulic acid ester mixture. Which
is an antioxidant are used for stabilizing food and (Table 1)
Pharmaceutical raw material .
In this type of review study, it was found that a nanotechnology
type of cyclodextrin-based nanosponge had Pros and cons in the
formulation. According to it. It was classified as Plain nanosponge,
Modified nanosponge, stimuli-responsive nanosponge, and
molecular imprinted nanosponges. Based on it nanosponges
technique were used for the synthesis process of nanosponges
such as melt- based synthesis, solvent based synthesis, Microwaveassisted
synthesis, and ultrasound - assisted synthesis, and useful
application of nanosponge in targeted drug delivery system was
described in molecular drug targeting, toxin therapy, dermal
penetration and as an anticancer therapy.
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