Effect of Season on UV Absorbing Property of Syzygium cumini L. Leaves
Prasenjit Mitra1, Prasanta Kumar Mitra2* and Tanaya Ghosh2
1Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), India
2Department of Medical Biotechnology, Sikkim Manipal University, India
Submission: August 15, 2018; Published: October 23, 2018
*Corresponding author: Prasanta Kumar Mitra, Professor & Head, Department of Medical Biotechnology, SMIMS, SMU, Sikkim Maniple Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
How to cite this article: Prasenjit M, Prasanta K M, Tanaya G. Effect of Season on UV Absorbing Property of Syzygium cumini L. Leaves. Glob J Pharmaceu Sci. 2018; 6(3): 555687. DOI: 10.19080/GJPPS.2018.06.555687.
Syzygium cumini Linn. is known to possess a wide range of medicinal properties including UV absorbing property. In the present study we have examined effect of season on UV absorbing property of S. cumini L. leaves. S. cumini L. leaves were collected in summer, winter, autumn and rainy seasons. Acetone extracts of the leaves were separately prepared. Extracts were used to get absorption spectra by scanning in the wavelength range 200 nm-400 nm at 10 nm intervals. Amounts of polyphenols in the leave extracts were also checked to note correlation, if any, between poly phenol content and UV absorbing property of S. cumini L. leaves. Results showed that acetone extract of the leaves of rainy season had maximum UV absorbing property. Polyphenol content of the leaves was also high during rainy season. Acetone extract of S. cumini L. leaves of rainy season may be used as anti solar agent in preparation of sun screen lotions.
Numerous medicinal plants are known possessing UV absorbing property. Few of them are, Azadirachta indica, Oscimum sanctum, Calotropis gigantea L., Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Lycopersicon esculantum and Carica papaya [1,2]. Syzygium cumini L. (family Myrtaceae) is a tropical fruit tree of great economic importance. It is a large evergreen tree up to 30 m height and a girth of 3.6 m with a bole up to 15 m. The plant is native to Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, and Indonesia. In India the plant is found almost everywhere. In English the plant is known as Jambul tree. In Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, Tamil, Gujrati and Malayalam the plant is called as Jamuna, Jaam, Jammun, Naval, Gambu and Njaval respectively . S. cumini L.has several medicinal properties. Leaf has anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, anti-DNA damage and anti-oxidant activities. Seeds exert anti-inflammatory and anti gastric ulcer activity. Fruit is anti-hyper lipidemic, possessing anti-cancer property. Bark and pulp of the plant are efficacious for diabetes .
Phytochemical studies showed that stem bark of S. cumini L. contains n-hentriacontane, n-octacosanol, n-triacontanol, betulinic acid, ß-sitosterol, crategolic (maslinic) acid, acid soxalic, citric acid, glycolic acids, ß-sitosterol-D-glucoside, quercetin, myricetin, astragalin kaempferol-3-o glucoside, friedelin, epi-friedelanol , eugenin and gallic acid. Leaves contain n-hepatcosane, n-nonacosane, sitosterol, betulinic acid, kaempferol 3-0-ß-D-glucuronopyranoside, ellagitannin, nilocitin, myricetin 3-0-ß-D-glucaronopyranoside and aminoacids like glycine, alanine etc. Quercetin, kaempferol, oleanolic acid, erategolic acid (maslinic acid), and myricetin flavonoids -isoquercitrin were found in the flowers of S. cumini [5,6].
Recently we have noted that acetone extract of S. cumini L. leaves possesses UV absorbing property . In the present study effect of season on UV absorbing property of S. cumini L. leaf was investigated. Efforts were also made to estimate number of phenolic compounds in S. cumini L. leaves in different seasons as there is a positive correlation between number of phenolic compounds in plant’s leaf and its UV absorption property .
S. cumini L. leaves were collected from the medicinal plants garden of the University of North Bengal, Siliguri (26041’30.9984” N, 88027’4.5756” E, elevation, 410 ft), Dist. Darjeeling, West Bengal, India during Autumn (September – November), Winter (December – February), Summer (March - May) and rainy season (June – August) at about 9 am. Leaves were authenticated by the experts of the department of Botany of the said university. A voucher specimen was kept in the
department of Medical Biotechnology, Sikkim Manipal Institute
of Medical Sciences of the Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok,
Sikkim, India for future references. (Figure 1).
Collected leaves of S. cumini L. of different seasons
were washed thoroughly. Leaves were then shade dried and
separately powdered. The powder (100g) was extracted with
500 ml of acetone in a soxhlet apparatus at 370 C for 15 minutes.
Mixture was then filtered. Filtrate was made to dryness by using
lyophilizer. Brown mass obtained.
Brown mass (10 mg) obtained from the extraction process
was dissolved in 100 ml distilled water. The solution was
processed in a spectrophotometer for UV ray absorption at the
range of 200-400 nm. Each experiment was done for three times
and mean value calculated.
10 mg of the brown mass obtained in extraction process was
dissolved in 100 ml distilled water and total phenols content
of the solution was determined by the method of McDonald et
al. . Here also each experiment was done for three times and
mean value calculated.
Data were analysed statistically by SPSS 20. The statistical
significance between UV absorption spectra of different extracts
was evaluated with Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT). 5%
was considered to be statistically significant .
UV absorption spectra of acetone extract of S. cumini L.
leaves of rainy season is shown in (Figure 2). The extract
absorbed maximum UV ray at 200 nm wave length which was
1.5. UV ray absorptions by the same extract at 250 nm, 300 nm,
350 nm and 400 nm wave lengths were found 0.8, 0.6, 0.3 and
0.18 respectively (Figure 3), shows UV absorption spectra of
acetone extract of S. cumini L. leaves of winter. At 200 nm wave
length the extract absorbed maximum UV rays. Value was 1.2.
At 250 nm, 300 nm, 350 nm and 400 nm wave lengths the same
extract of S. cumini L. leaves showed absorption 0.75, 0.5, 0.25
and 0.15 respectively.
UV absorption spectra of acetone extract of S. cumini L. leaves
of summer is shown in (Figure 4). The extract showed maximum
UV absorption at 200 nm. It was 1.0. UV ray absorptions
by the same extract at 250 nm, 300 nm, 350 nm and 400 nm
wave lengths were 0.7, 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 respectively (Figure 5),
shows UV absorption spectra of acetone extract of S. cumini L.
leaves of autumn. At 200 nm the extract absorbs maximum UV
rays. It was 0.92. At 250 nm, 300 nm, 350 nm and 400 nm wave
lengths acetone extract of S. cumini L. leaves, however, showed
absorption 0.67, 0.48, 0.15 and 0.08 respectively.
Effect of season on amount of phenolic compounds in S.
cumini L. leaves is shown in (Figure 6). S. cumini L. leaves
collected during rainy season had 63.0 mg phenolic compounds
in 1 g dry wt of the leaves whereas S. cumini L. leaves collected
during winter, summer and autumn had 40.0, 35.0, 30.0 mg of
phenolic compounds per g dry wt of the leaves respectively
Solar UV-radiation is required for cutaneous synthesis of
vitamin D. This covers almost 90% of the vitamin D-requirements
of the human body. But the solar UV radiation has adverse
effects also. One of the important environmental risk factors for
development of non-melanoma skin cancer is solar UV-radiation.
Besides, solar UV-radiation has lot of detrimental effects. One
example is photosensitivity reactions to ingested drugs.
Excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks
including pigmentary changes, atrophy, wrinkling etc. [11-13].
Efforts are therefore made to invent sources through which
solar / artificial UV rays can be absorbed. In this context work
has been extended even in the field of medicinal plants [1,2]. In
the present study we have confirmed UV absorbing property of
acetone extract of S. cumini L. leaves. The plant leaves collected
during winter, summer, autumn and rainy seasons showed
UV absorbing property in all wave lengths of UV region, but
maximum absorption was found in 200 nm wave length (Figures
When compared the UV absorbing property of acetone
extract of S. cumini L. leaves of different seasons, we have
noticed that S. cumini L. leaves collected during rainy season
had maximum UV absorbing property in 200 nm followed by S.
cumini L. leaves collected during winter, summer and autumn
(Figure 7). This is probably the influence of climate of different
seasons on secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. Several
authors demonstrated that season can change amount of bio
active compounds in different parts of the plants [14-23].
In the present study we also estimated number of phenolic
compounds in S. cumini L. leaves of different seasons. Results
showed that S. cumini L. leaves of rainy season had maximum
number of phenolic compounds (Figure 6). This high number
of phenolic compounds may have correlation with maximum
UV absorbing property of S. cumini L. leaves of rainy season.
Ebrahimzadeh et al. also showed a positive correlation between
number of phenolic compounds in plant’s leaf and its UV
absorption property . UV absorption property of S. cumini L.
leaves may be due to presence of other compound(s) apart from
phenolics. Presently work is now going on in this direction.