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Potential among Breast Cancer Patients in Owerri
1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Imo State University, Nigeria
2 Department of Pharmacology, Niger Delta University Amassoma, Bayelsa State Nigeria
3Department of Public Health, Federal University of Technoloy, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
4 Dalzon Medical Diagnostics Limited, Imo State Nigeria
Submission: October 24, 2019; Published: October 29, 2019
*Corresponding author:Nnodim Johnkennedy, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science, Imo State University, Owerri,
How to cite this article:Nnodim Johnkennedy, Njoku Chukwudi Joseph, Nwaokoro Joakin Chidozie, Ihionu Chukwudozie A. Evaluation of Selenium, Calcium
= and Membrane Potential among Breast Cancer Patients in Owerri. Glob J Reprod Med. 2019; 7(2): 5556707. DOI: 10.19080/GJORM.2019.07.555707.
Background:Breast cancer is the cancer diagnosed in women mostly.
Aim: This study was investigated to evaluate the level of selenium, calcium and membrane potential among breast cancer patients in Owerri.
Methods:38 breast cancer patients and 36 apparently healthy subjects between the ages of 45- 60 years admitted to General
Hospital Owerri were selected in this study. Fasting venous blood was collected and was used for the determination of selenium, calcium and
Result: The results obtained revealed that the levels of selenium and membrane potential were significantly decreased in breast cancer
patients when compared with the control at P<0.05.
ConclusionThis could probably imply reduction of selenium and cell membrane potential leading to oxidative stress.
Keywords: Selenium; Membrane potential; Breast cancer; Patients
Breast cancer is the type of cancer that forms in the cells of the
breasts. It is the commonly cancer diagnosed in women . It can
occur in both men and women; but it’s far more common in women.
It is characterized by the presence of a breast lump or thickening
that feels different from the surrounding tissue; differences in the
size; shape or appearance of a breast; as well as changes to the
skin over the breast; such as dimpling. Other features include a
newly inverted nipple; and peeling; scaling; crusting or flaking
of the pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple (areola) or
breast skin as well as redness or pitting of the skin over the breast;
like the skin of an orange . Breast cancer results when some
breast cells begin to grow abnormally. These cells divide more
rapidly than healthy cells do and continue to accumulate; forming
a lump or mass. Cells metastasize via the breast to lymph nodes
or to other parts of the body . It commonly starts with cells in
the milk-producing ducts. While some may start in the glandular
tissue called lobules or in other cells or tissue within the breast .
It has been reported that hormones; lifestyle and environmental
factors may affect risk of breast cancer. However; it is not clear
why some have no risk factors develop cancer; yet other people
with risk factors never do. It’s likely that breast cancer is caused
by a complex interaction of genetic makeup and environment.
Also; membrane potential and calcium dynamics may be affected
in breast cancer . This membrane potential could be as a result
of disparities in concentration and permeability of important ions
across a membrane. Because of the unbalance concentrations of
ions across a membrane; the membrane has an electrical charge.
Membrane potential is simply the difference in voltage (or
electrical potential) between the inside and outside of a cell .
In fact; without membrane potentials human life may be highly
affected. Truly; living cells maintain a potential difference across
their membrane. Owing to unequal concentrations of ions across a
membrane; the membrane has an electrical charge. Differences in
membrane potential result to action potentials and give cells the
ability to send messages around the body . In the light of above; the action potentials are electrical signals; these signals carry
efferent messages to the central nervous system for processing and
afferent messages away from the brain to bring about a specific
reaction. Several active transports embedded within the cellular
membrane results in the formation of membrane potentials; and
the universal cellular structure of the lipid bilayer. Membrane
potential plays the role of sending messages to and from the central
nervous system. It is necessary in cellular biology and displays
how cell biology is mainly connected with electrochemistry and
physiology . In this study; the level of membrane potential;
selenium and calcium in breast cancer patients was determined to
provide information for better management and diagnosis.
A total of 38 confirmed breast cancer patients within the ages
of 45-60 years attending General Hospital Owerri were involved
in the study while 38 apparently healthy non breast cancer within
the ages of 45-60 years served as control.
In all subjects 4ml of fasting veinous blood was collected into
plain and EDTA bottle. The serum was separated by centrifuging
the whole blood in wester fuge (model 684) centrifuge at 5;000g
for 10 minutes.
The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit.
The plasma selenium was determined by atomic absorption
Spectrophotometric method . While membrane potential was
determined by calculation using Nerst Equation.
In this study the level of selenium was significantly decreased in
breast cancer when compared with the control. This is in line with
the work of . The decrease in concentration of Selenium could
be linked to oxidative stress in which high level of free radicals
is released. Selenium plays an essential role as a cofactor for the
reduction of antioxidant enzyme such as glutathione peroxidase;
an enzyme which aids react with potentially harmful oxidizing
agents in substances. Hence; high level of free radicals generated
in cancer may probably result in reduction of selenium . In
this study; the membrane potential was significantly reduced in
breast cancer patients when compared with the control Table 1.
Membrane potentials in cells are determined primarily by three
factors: the concentration of ions on the inside and outside of the
cell; the permeability of the cell membrane to those ions through
specific ion channels; and by the activity of electrogenic pumps.
. The change in charge typically occurs due to an influx of
sodium ions into a cell; although it can be mediated by an influx of
any kind of cation or efflux of any kind of anion. This is consistent
with the work of . This means that there is reduction in cell
activity in breast cancer patients. This could be associated with
high cell depolarization and free radicals’ generation as well as
increased utilization of ATPase enzyme which is a solute pump
that pumps potassium into cells while pumping sodium out of
cells; both against their concentration gradients.