Written by Noordin Darus, Roziah Omar and Tengku Rethwan Mansor, infectious diseases are a major cause of high morbidity and mortality rates especially in developing countries. In Malaysia although the rate of infectious disease has decreased but the disease is still a public health problem that needs to be addressed. In this book will be discussed some types of infectious diseases, symptoms and signs and precautions and controls that need to be prioritized. Infectious diseases can be classified according to the way the disease is transmitted as food and water borne diseases, infectious infections, vector-borne illnesses, diseases through various means and sex-related illnesses. Water borne diseases and food are typhoid, cholera and food poisoning. All of these diseases are caused by bacterial germs found in contaminated food and water. Typhoid is caused by bacteria. Symptom typhoid is tiredness, lack of appetite, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Signs of the disease are prolonged fevers, red spots or roses on the body part, liver enlargement and spleen and slow pulse rate. Cholera is also caused by bacteria. Cholera disease symptom is dehydration, diarrhea and fatigue. The sign of the disease is the vomiting and liquid stool. Cholera patients do not have fever because the cholera does not enter the blood. Food poisoning may be caused by virus or bacteria. Symptom of the disease is abdominal pain, nausea, dehydration. While the sign is vomiting and diarrhoea.
Infectious infections are infectious diseases through the air. This infection is caused by bacteria released through respiratory tract seepage such as saliva, sputum or nasal discharge from the patient. Among the diseases that transmitted this way are like colds, measles and constipation. Measles are also caused by viruses. Symptoms of this disease include headache and muscle pain. Signs of the disease are like high fever, cough, red eyes, rash and gland enlargement. The measles rash usually occurs on the third day of the fever. The rash begins on the face and will spread throughout the body within 24 to 48 hours. Tuberculosis is also caused by bacteria. Symptoms of constipation are as poor as appetite and fatigue. Signs of the disease are fever, bloody cough and weight loss. Vectors are carriers of the disease and then spread them in several ways. Vectors can be divided into two types, namely physical vectors and biological vectors. Physical vectors like flies carry germs and indirectly spread them. Examples of germs that are carried by the flies are typhoid. Thyroiodin germs found in the stools of typhoid patients will be carried by flies that have perished in the stool. The same flies later when suffering from food or drink will pollute the food or drink with a typhoid germ. Anyone who takes the food or drink can be infected with typhoid.
Biological vectors are like mosquitoes that carry disease from one person to another. Patients are infected with mosquito bites. The causative agent will spend half of his life cycle in this vector. In this book the reader will study three types of vector borne diseases namely dengue, malaria and yellow fever. Disease through various means is like polio, tetanus, AIDS, rubella and hepatitis B. Sexually transmitted diseases are a group of infectious diseases that transmitted through sex. The disease is widely available and everywhere in the world. The actual figure of the case is uncertain and most cases reported only represent 20% of the actual figure. Diseases that belong to this group are AIDS, gonorrhea, hepatitis B and herpes. Gonorrhea is caused by bacteria. This symptom of the disease is painful during urination. The sign of the disease is the production of mucus and pus from the urinary tract for men and vagina for women. This disease if not treated will spread and damage the urinary system and cause infertility. Bacteria that cause gonorrhea can also enter the blood and cause septicemia. If this happens, gonorrhea can spread to other parts of the body.