Antidiabetic properties and metal analysis of
Bombax ceiba flower extracts
Mohd Amin Mir1*, Bilal Ahmad Mir3, Anil Bisht2, Zainab Rao3 and Dhyal Singh2
1Research Scholar at Uttarakhand Technical University, India
2Department of Zoology, Uttaranchal College of Bio-medical sciences and Hospital, India
3Department of Microbiology, Uttaranchal College of Bio-medical sciences and Hospital, India
Submission: March 08, 2017; Published: March 20, 2017
*Corresponding author: Mohd Amin Mir, Research Scholar at Uttarakhand Technical University, India, Tel:9897635334; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Mohd A M, Bilal A M , Anil B , Zainab R , Dhyal S. Antidiabetic properties and metal analysis of Bombax ceiba flower extracts. Glob J Add & Rehab Med. 2017; 1(3): 555562. DOI:10.19080/GJARM.2017.01.555562
The plant may be considered a bio-synthetic laboratory, not only for the bio-chemicals such as carbohydrates, protein, and lipid that are utilized as food by man, but also for a multitude of compounds like glycosides, alkaloids, tannins etc, that exerts physiological effects. The compound those are responsible for therapeutic effects are usually the secondary metabolite. Bombex ceiba plant extracts have been evaluated for its antidiabetic properties by in-vitro inhabitation of alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzymes. The results so far obtained are encouraging by showing inhibition of these enzymes to a large extent. The water and ethanolic extracts of all the plant parts (thalamus and flower) show the highest inhibition as compared to DCM extracts.
The corresponding IC50 values are as thalamus DCM extract 36.22, ethanolic extract 35.32, and water extract 31.31and the flower DCM extract 38.13, ethanolic extract 35.23, and water extract 33.00. The water, ethanolic and DCM extract of thalamus shows the concentration of sodium as 340, 310, 120 (ppm), potassium as 151, 180, 98 (ppm), lithium 31, 25, 11(ppm) and that of calcium 110, 80, 89 (ppm). The water, ethanolic and DCM extract of flower shows the concentration of sodium as 300, 295, 95 (ppm), potassium as 149, 175, 81 (ppm), lithium 28, 20, 05 (ppm) and that of calcium 95, 75, 64 (ppm).
Keywords:Bombex ceiba; Metal ions; Plant extracts; IC50 values; Flower; Thalamus
Medicinal plants are the plants used for centuries as remedies for human diseases because they contain components of therapeutic value. About 80% of world population relies on the use of traditional medicine which is predominantly based on plant material.
Semal is called Kings of the Forest due to their massive size and showy flowers. It is a large deciduous tree with a straight cylindrical stem and horizontally spreading branches in whorls. This horizontally branching system in whorls, large size and the buttress at the base are the first seen characteristics to distinguish the species in the forest. The tree reaches up to 40 meter in height and 2 meter in diameter with the clear bole of 24-30 meter. Large trees are invariably buttressed at the base. Stem buttresses at the base and go up to 5-6 meter in height. Family: Braginaceaae.
The Bombes ceiba possesses the active constituents which have a direct role in the management of diabetes mellitus ascompiled by Rawat Mukesh and Parmar Namita . Bombax ceiba Linn is a popular plant among native communities for its medicinal properties. The root is specially used for debility and impotence. A case study of a patient of involuntary weight loss without any detectable cause who was administered 1.5 g of B. ceiba root powder with milk for 24 weeks as the study carried out by S. K. Verma, Vartika Jain, and S. S. Katewa .
Thestudy by Verma Rameshwar, Devre Kishor, Gangrade Tushar, Gore Siddharth, Gour Sudarshan  provides an insight on pharmacological, phytochemical properties and therapeutic benefits of the plant. A study undertaken by Bhushan Gandhare, Nikhil Soni, Hemant J. Dhongade  evaluated the antioxidant potential of bark of Bombax ceiba. The study by Roja Sri Donipati, Dr. M. V. Rama Rao and Dr. P. Subhasini , mentioned the microbial activity of Hexane, Methanol and chloroform extracts of flowers of Bombax ceiba for potential antimicrobial activity against various bacterial strains. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of anti-dysentric, anti-diahorreal and anti-pyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn contains glycosides, tannins, flavonoid, b-sitosterol, lupeol as shown by Garg Nitika, Meena Ajay, Nainjaspreet .
A. Study area and plant collection: The Bombax ceiba
flowers were collected from the FRI Dehradun. The Bombax
ceiba flowers were shade dried and powdered in mixture. The
powder of Bombax ceiba was used for experiment.
B. Extraction: 50 gms of each Bombax ceiba flower petals
and the thalamus were weighed separately and accurately and
then extracted in a Soxhlet Apparatus using thimble in order
to get the pure form of extract. Various solvents were used
depending upon their polarity index with increasing polarity
(dichloromethane, ethanol and water).
a) Extraction A:
The sample was extracted with a particular solvent (viz
dichloromethane) in a Soxhlet apparatus for a required period,
till no extract was coming out of the sample, as being examined
by taking a small amount of the extracted solvent from the
main chamber of the Soxhlet apparatus over the watch glass
for the appearance of precipitate. After the Extraction with
dichloromethane, the extract solution was subjected to filtration
to remove the residue from extract. The filtrate was them then
collected and evaporated to remove the volatile solvent to its
1/4 volume on water bath at a suitable temperature. The whole
filtrate was then made in solid form (powdered) after being kept
in an oven. The residue was collected, and subjected to further
extraction process using ethanol as an extractants and by using
water as an extractant decoction method was employed.
Flame Photometer Model - 1385 is a microprocessor based
unit designed for medical application. The microprocessor
provides automation in operation, measurement and end-result
presentation. The unit can do the estimation of Sodium (Na+),
potassium (K+), Lithium (Li+) and calcium (Ca+2) in single
aspiration of a sample as per Whitney EN, Rolfes SR and St. Paul,
MN - 1996.
For preparation of water extract, 10 mg of the extracts of
flower (DCM, Ethanol, and Water) were separately mixed with
the 10 ml of water. The extracts were completely exhausted by
adding small quantities of water and filtering off every time in a
successive manner, to yield final volume of 1 liter.
Mixed standard solution of Na+, K+, Ca+2 and Li+2 were
prepared by dissolving 254.2 mg of NaCl, 190.6 mg of KCl, 276.9
mg of CaCl2 and 184.3 mg of Li2SO4.H2O in 1 litre of water, so
it gives 100 ppm (4.35 millimole/lit.) of Na+, 100 ppm (2.558
millimole/lit.) of K+ , 100 ppm (2.495 millimole/lit.) of Ca+2 and
Alpha amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyses alpha-bonds of
large alpha linked polysaccharide such as glycogen and starch to
yield glucose and maltose. Alpha amylase inhibitory activity was
based on the starch iodine method that was originally developed
by Laila A. Shekib, Samir M. El-Iraqui, Taisser M. Abo-Bakr . In
alpha amylase inhibition method 1ml substrate- potato starch
(1% w/v), different concentrations of (Acarbose std drug /
Plant extracts), 1ml of alpha amylase enzyme (1% w/v) and
2ml of acetate buffer (0.1 M, 7.2 pH) was added. NOTE- Potato
starch solution, alpha amylase solution and drug solution was
prepared in acetate buffer. The above mixture was incubated
for 1 hr. Then 0.1 ml Iodine-iodide indicator (635mg Iodine
and 1gm potassium iodide in 250 ml distilled water) was added
in the mixture. Absorbance was taken at 565 nm in UV-Visible
spectroscopy. % inhibition was calculated and all the tests were
performed in triplicate.
The inhibitory activity was determined by incubating a
solution of starch substrate (2 % w/v maltose or sucrose) 1 ml
with 0.2 M Tris buffer pH 8.0 and various concentration of plant
extract for 5 min at 37°C. The reaction was initiated by adding
1 ml of alpha-glucosidase enzyme (1U/ml) to it followed by
incubation for 40 min at 35°C. Then the reaction was terminated
by the addition of 2 ml of 6N HCl. Then the intensity of the colour
was measured at 540nm .
The concentration of the plant extracts required to scavenge
50% of the radicals (IC50) was calculated by using the percentage
scavenging activities at five different concentrations of the
extract. Percentage inhibition (% I) was calculated by
% I = (Ac-As)/Ac X 100 
Where Ac is the absorbance of the control and As is the
absorbance of the sample.
The alpha-amylase inhibition of various plant extracts
(flower and thalamus) extracts have been analyzed, and it
was found that (water extract of thalamus) posses the highest
inhibition potential followed by (ethanolic extract of thalamus).
The percentage inhibition by plant extracts was found to be
concentration dependent, percentage inhibition increases with
the increase in the concentration of the plant extracts. The IC50
value was determined from the straight line graph. The IC50
value of all the plant extracts was found lesser than the reference compound (ACAROSE). The IC50 value of various plant extracts
follows the order (water extract of thalamus, ethanolic extract of
thalamus, ethanolic extract of flower, DCM extract of thalamus,
water extract of flower and DCM extract of flower) was found to
be (32.95, 33.45, 33.85, 34.95, 35.15 and 35.65) respectively and
are presented in (Tables 1-7).
The Bombax ceiba plant extracts (Flower, Thalamus) have
been analysed for the inhibition of (alpha glucosidase). The
inhibition percentage was determined by Spectrophotometric
method, and IC50 value of all the plant extracts was determined.
The lower IC50 value indicates higher inhibition percentage.
Among the all plant extracts the higher inhibition of alpha
glucosidase inhibition was shown by (Water extract of flower)
(Figures 1-11), and the IC50 value as determined was found to be
(36.2). The various plant extracts follow the order as per their
inhibition potential as (water extract of flower, Ethanol Extract
of Thalamus, water extract of thalamus, ethanolic extract of
flower, DCM extract of flower and DCM extract of Thalamus). The
percentage inhibition was found to be concentration dependent
as the value of percentage inhibition increases correspondingly
with the increase in the concentration of plant. The IC50 values
of all the plant extracts have been found to be less than the
reference compound (ACAROSE) (Tables 8-11) as per their
percentage inhibition is taken into consideration. The IC50
value of various plant extracts is as (37.2, 36.82, 36.21, 37.3, 36.3
36.5) respectively for (DCM extract of flower, ethanolic extract
of flower, water extract of flower, DCM extract of thalamus,
ethanolic extract of thalamus and water extract of thalamus)
The metals which have been analysed by Flame Photometry
include (Na, K, Li and K). In flame photometric analysis the
elements analysed were burnt in presence of a given flame, the
burnt element gives its characteristic coloured flame which is
being analysed. All the metal concentrations are in (ppm) units
and are tabulated in (Tables 15 & 16). The graph traced between
metal ion concentration and plant extracts are shown in (Figures
Bombex ceba plant extracts have been evaluated for its
antidiabetic properties by in-vitro inhabitation of alpha amylase
and alpha glucosidase enzymes. The results so far obtained are
encouraging by showing inhibition of these enzymes to a large
extent. The ethanol and water extracts of all the plant parts show
the highest inhibition as compared to DCM extracts. The results
obtained in this study are in line with the already obtained
results for the antidiabetic potential of the plant. The polar
solvent extracts being showing the highest potential against the
alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzyme. The plant-based
antidiabetic drugs or agents contains diversity of major active
constituents such as phenols, Coumarins, lignans, terpenoids,
carotenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, alkaloids and
The highest concentration of potassium in stem, root
and flower extracts were found to be 151, 180, and 98 ppm
respectively. The concentration is within the limit set by
FAO/WHO., 1984 . It helps to promote efficient cognitive
functioning by playing a significant role in getting oxygen
to the brain as reported by Charlene J. Nuble 2005 . The
highest sodium ion concentration in the water, ethanolic and
DCM extracts have been found to be 340, 310 and 120 ppm
respectively and is within the limits of FAO/WHO., 1984 .
Sodium (Na) is the major extracellular cation and it plays a role
in body fluid distribution.
Calcium strengthens your bones, particularly before you
are 35 years old. Recommended Dietary Allowances 1989 mentioned that (99%) of calcium is found in bones and teeth. The
calcium concentration in the stem, root and flower extracts have
been found to be 110, 80 and 89 ppm respectively. The calcium
concentration in the concerned plant extracts is sufficient if used
as a supplement to overcome calcium related diseases.
The concentration of lithium in the Water, ethanolic and DCM
extracts of Bombax ceiba were found to be (31, 25 and 11 ppm)
respectively and is within the range set by FAO/WHO., 1984 .
The plant screened for phytochemical constituents seemed
to have the potential to act as a source of useful drugs and
also to improve the health status of the consumers as a result
of the presence of various compounds that are vital for good
health. The plant in reference showed that in addition to the
ornamental purpose the ceiba species posses a good quality of
phytochemicals which directly or indirectly help in the health
maintenance of living beings. In conclusion it can be mentioned
that plants bear a good potential to overcome every problem
in a human body. The concerned plant possesses a high degree
of value as source of antidiabetic drug. Every type of activity
concerned with a plant is due to the phytochemicals which
remain in built within these plants .The antidiabetic activity of
the plant is due its potential in habit amylase productions, which
in turn leads to non decomposition of higher carbohydrates into
lower there by make blood glucose leval within required limit
of the cell.
The presence of metal constituents in the plant species
could be beneficial because these metals form the base for
the development of higher moiety of phytochemical and the
change in the state of higher phytochemicals is being overcome
by the metal which lies at the central moiety of the higher
phytochemicals. So concerned plant flowers should be consumed
more and more to over various types of human disorders.