Conservation Process of Two Mural Paintings
in El Shinawy Palace
Kholod K Salama1*, Mona F Ali2 and Abubakr M Moussa2
1National Museum of Egyptian Civilization, Egypt
2Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Egypt
Submission: July 28, 2018; Published:August 20, 2019
*Corresponding author:Kholod K Salama, National Museum of Egyptian Civilization, Cairo, Egypt
How to cite this article: Kholod K S, Mona F A, Abubakr M M. Conservation Process of Two Mural Paintings in El Shinawy Palace . Glob J Arch &
Anthropol. 2019; 10(3): 555790. DOI: 10.19080/GJAA.2019.10.555790
In the present study, an investigation has been undertaken in to El Sinawy palace back to the 20th century and built by Italian architect. It is initially located in east delta-Egypt. The investigation used to focus to the deterioration factors facing the palace which will be a museum after finishing the conservation process. The investigation revealed that the most vital deterioration factor facing the mural paintings in El Shinawy palace is the high artificial light and the groundwater which appeared in the flaking of painting layers. The effect of all deterioration factors can be prevented by using simple ways from the preventive conservation
Keywords: El Shinawy palace; Mural paintings; XRD; Portable Microscope
The presence of historical palaces is considered the most
important monuments which reflect the period circumstances
build in. El Shinawy palace (Figure 1) was built for Mohamed
Mohamed Bek El Shinawy (a rich merchant-parliament membersenator
(the owner of the palace) in the 20th century or to year
1928 the whole space of the palace is4164 m2. That palace is full
of all kinds of accurate fine arts (Figure 2). The palace has got
an award signed by Mussolini-Italian governor- as the prettiest
palace built out of Italy by an Italian architect. It is consisted of
three floors, that palace is famous because of its decoration as
the mural paintings on ceilings and on walls. Many parts of the
mural paintings in El Shinawy palace were perfectly preserved
while in others, there were flaking paints. In some area the
painting layer was entirely lost, but the plaster survived in good
condition. The obtained results will be used to apply a scientific
plan for restoration and preservation.
Under taken Mural paintings in El Shinawy palace were
Rococo style as the colours were light and there is an obvious
movement in the birds or in the planets (Figure 3), Those mural
paintings exist in food chamber in second floor in El Shinawy
palace in El Mansoura city they are rococo style as the colours
are light and there is an obvious movement of birds and in the
growing of planets their dimensions about 2.27 M X53 cm with
frame it’s width 11cm. The current mural paintings in El shinawy
palace were exposed to many deterioration factors amongst; the
geometrical factors, the environmental factors, the biological
factors, the dynamic deterioration factors which includes the
earthquakes and vibrations caused by transportation, in addition
to the human made factors. The most common damage is found
in the paint layer as a result of moisture; dust is covering those
murals because of the long-time opened doors and windows
The analysis of this painting was carried out in the occasion
of the restoration treatment. From the visual inspection the
condition of the painting is almost stable, failure in paint layers
is the most apparent deterioration phenomenon (Figure 4).
Therefore, the pictorial layer suffered from severe loss and color
change around the lost areas, grassy spots
Mural paintings of El shinawy palace were studied in order
to determine their composition. Mortars, plasters and pigment
materials have been sampled for laboratory analyses. All the
analyzed and investigated samples were carefully collected from
areas without aesthetic value or from severely damaged parts
Portable Optical Microscope (P.O.M): The paintings were
examined with portable optical microscope to identify the color
mixture and the micro cracks
X-Ray Diffraction (XRD): The X-ray diffraction patterns of
the paintings were obtained using a diffract meter, operated at
40kV and 25mA, using Cu Ka radiation and a receiving slit of
0.2 mm. The measurements were made at room temperature.
Preparation of each sample consisted of grinding it in the dry
form, by using a mortar and pestle to obtain a fine powder .
After examining the paintings the green color composed
mainly of fine to medium- grained of grafit, embedded in very fine
grained ground mass admixed with considerable homogenous
of ground layer, red color mixed with a percentage of fine blue
color , the blue color mixed with yellow color and the ground
layer contain salts (Figure 5).
XRD Analysis Results Revealed the Following:
a. Existence of gypsum in the four samples in different
percentage assured that the ground layer of mural paintings
was made of gypsum and zincate which used for whiteness.
So, the ground layer is consisted of zincate mixed with
gypsum in percentage 2:1.
b. The colors which were used in the painting were so
familiar in that period
c. The yellow color is Goethite, the green color is the
malachite, the blue color is cobult, (Figure 6) (Table 1).
d. Halite constitutes of the ground layer in 40% that result
assured the occurrence of deterioration which can cause
detachment in the future , which caused the detachment
of painting layers or blisters Ashurst  by XRD) as well as
the calcite crystals are homogenously connected with big
crystals of quartz.
The Conservation Possess of the Mural Paintings: XRD
analysis revealed that the ground layer is full of salts with high
percentage because of The solubilized salts in the groundwater
rising in walls, the daily sun light or the high artificial light
dried out the paintings, so the salts crystalize and recrystallize,
becoming bigger and so causing interior pressure leading to the
detachments of paint layers , First of all stopping the rising
of groundwater in walls by albumin strips (the water stopper).
Then close the windows in the palace especially in second
Finally Choosing a suitable way for light with led lamps
which has no heat.
The conservation process briefly consisted of:
a. Cleaning using soft and hard brushes (Figure 6).
b. Chemical cleaning using acetone for the hard stains.
c. Consolidation using Beva371 with concentration. 3%
d. Retouching the paint layer using the suitable colors.
The Suggested way to Protect the Mural Paintings at El
Shinawy Palace:This palace is preparing to be museum so the
paintings Mural paintings must be protected by covering them
with flat glass this method used widely in tombs in Luxor and
Aswan to prevent visitors from touching the painted layers the
flat glass must be light weight glass, smooth, high resistance for
breaking and scratches as well as high transparent, it should also
cutout all the harmful radiations and with suitable thickness
(Figure 7) [6,7].
This paper is presenting the initial stages for restoration and
conservation of mural paintings in El shinawy palace which full
of all kind of arts , this study focused mainly on the deteriorated
places of the mural paintings specially by identifying the
percentage of the salts to assure its responsibility for the detachments of paint layers, the mural paintings in El Shinawy
palace suffered from two major and vital deterioration factors
from salts ,the high artificial light and the touch of visitors to the
paintings which cause the greasy stains .
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