Radiation protection also known as radiological protection International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defined as the protection of people from harmful effect of exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation exposure can be from a radiation source it may be due to sun rays mobile etc. Radiation protection is the reduction of expected dose and measurement of dose uptake. The concept of risk is an important one and it is essential that we reduce risk to patient and staff through the justification, optimization and limitation of Radiation exposure.
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) advocates the principle of “as low as reasonably achievable “which accepts the same amount of radiation exposure may be evitable. ICRP also recommends that radiation exposure should base on the principle of time distance shielding justification optimization and dose limit.
The various regulatory bodies like the ICRP, the national commission for (NCRP) in America and atomic energy regulatory board in India recommend and lay down norms for radiation protection in various countries around the globe. The ICRP 1991 that “ The overall objectives of radiation protection is to provide an appropriate standard of protection for a man without unduly limiting the beneficial practice giving rise to radiation protection” The NCRP in 1993 issued a similar statement that “the goal of radiation on protection is to prevent the occurrence of serious radiation induced (acute and chronic deterministic effect) in exposed person to a degree that is acceptable in relation to the benefits to the individual and to society from the activity that generate such exposure.
Three of the most basic and easy to follow principles of radiation protection are: -
The total dose received by a radiation worker is directly proportional to the total time spent near the radiation source. Lesser the time spent near the source lesser will be radiation dose. As the time spent in radiation field increase the radiation dose received also increase. Hence minimum the time spent in any radiation field minimum will be the radiation.
Increasing the distance between the individual and the source of radiation is an effective method of reduce exposure to radiation .as the distance from the source of radiation is increased the radiation dose level will decrease significantly minimizing the distance from the source of radiation is a particularly effective method of exposure radiation during mobile radiography and fluoroscopy procedure. The amount of exposure reduction can be calculated using the inverse square law. Which describe the relationship between distance and radiation intensity? The inverse square low states that the intensity of radiation at a given distance from a point source is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.
When maximum distance and minimum time do not ensure
an acceptably low radiation dose adequate shielding must be
provided so that radiation beam will sufficiently attenuated. The
material that attenuates the radiation called shield and the shield
will reduce exposure to patient and public.
Radiation shielding materials are used in variety of radiologic
applications the three major types of radiation shielding materials
a) lead electrolytic shielding, lead electrolytic shielding,
b) non-lead- or lead-free shielding.
The high density of lead makes it useful shield against x-ray
and gamma -ray radiation.
a. Lead composite shielding
lead based composite blend radiation shielding garments are
lighter than regular grade lead and are available with the same
lead equivalency protective level.
b. Non- lead- or lead-free shielding
These are manufactured with additives and bind that are
mixed with attenuating heavy metals this fall into the same
category of material as lead that absorb and block radiation.
The procedure involving radiation is necessary for patient
care and that the radiation dose from the procedure is accepted to
do better than harm.in case of the individual patient justification
normally involves both the referring medical practitioner and the
once examination is justifiable they must be optimized that
should be done at lower dose with the maintaining efficiency and
accuracy. Optimization of the examination should be both generic
for the examination type and all equipment and procedure
involved.it should be specific for the individual and include review
of the whether or not it can be effectively done in a way that reduce
dose for particular patient.
Ionizing radiation may affect any living tissue through which
it passes, potentially leaving damage in its make many times
radiation has lifesaving effects but for radiologist and radiologic
assistant who uses it as a part of occupation radiation could have
detrimental consequence it is possible for medical imaging and
radio therapy professional to have long safe carrier when they
monitor radiation exposure and employ the 3 radiation protection
principles. Time, Distance, Shielding.