Physico-Chemical Characterization and
Antioxidant Activity of Miconia Ciliata (rich.)
Dc Infrutescences in Two Maturation Stages
Patrícia da Silva Machado*, Ana Beatriz Silva Araújo, Andreza Stephanie de Souza Pereira, Elisângela Elena Nunes Carvalho and Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas Boas
Department of Food Science, Federal University of Lavras, Brazil
Submission: January 25, 2019; Published: Febrauary 19, 2019
*Corresponding author: Patrícia da Silva Machado, Federal University of Lavras, Department of Food Science, University Campus, Lavras- MG, Brazil
How to cite this article: Patrícia Silva M, A Beatriz S A, Andreza S S P, Elisângela E N C, Eduardo V B V B. Physico-Chemical Characterization and
Antioxidant Activity of Miconia Ciliata (rich.) Dc Infrutescences in Two Maturation Stages. Curr Trends Biomedical Eng & Biosci. 2019; 18(3): 555987.
Miconia is the biggest genus of Melastomatacea Juss, a family with pantropical distribution. The present study aimed to conduct the physico-chemical characterization and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of Miconia ciliata infrutescences. Analyses of pH, titratable acidity, total sugars, soluble pectin, total phenol, vitamin C, monomeric anthocyanins, antioxidant activity (DPPH) and color (L, C, ºh) were conducted. The pH increased as acidity decreased, while soluble solids, total sugars and soluble pectin increased and total phenol, vitamin C, antioxidant activity and clarity increased as maturation advanced. Monomeric anthocyanins were only detected in mature infrutescences, while the green ones presented more vivid color. The hue angle changed from green to purple from the green-mature to mature infrutescences, respectively. Miconia ciliata infrutescences have significant amounts of total phenols, are source of vitamin C and present sensory and functional appeal.
Keywords: Vitamin C; Total phenol; Functional; Melastomataceae
Miconia is the biggest genus of Melastomatacea Juss, a family with pantropical distribution, however most of species is found in the Neotropical region [1,2]. It is composed by approximately 150 genera and 4500 species, with 66 genera and 1370 occurring in Brazil, representing the sixth most diverse family in the country . Miconia species are generally described by collectors like shrubs or small trees (4-5m). Many species present a great variability of height and may attain from 10 to 30m . The fruit is a berry regularly finalized by the lacinium of cup or thalamus of hypantoand species present deciduous chalice . The family lacks data on the industrial, food and/or medicinal importance, since only few compounds were isolated . The study of little known species may reveal information that support the generation of income and employments for local communities due to the correct exploration of biodiversity, as well as help on reducing deforestation  and provide information for more specific studies in several areas like food and pharmaceutical industries. Then, the physical and chemical characterization of plants is important for the evaluation of quality, technological classification, provision of secure information to determine the nutritional value, yield, processing operations to be used and the product lifespan .
In the state of Pará the consumption of Miconia ciliata (Rich.) by children that walk along streams is common. Fruits are generally known as “uvinha”, “chumbinho” and “canela-de-veado”. The lack of scientific data on physico-chemical parameters and antioxidant potential of infrutescences of Miconia ciliate make the studies greatly important given the relevance of such species for the Brazilian flora and communities. In this sense, the present study aimed to characterize physico-chemical traits and evaluate the antioxidant potential of Miconia ciliate in two maturation stages. Green-mature and mature fruits were collected in Vila do Apeú (1º17’00.1”S 47º58’50.9”W), municipality of Castanhal, state of Pará, Brazil, and transported to the Laboratory of Post-harvest of Fruits and Vegetables of Federal University of Lavras, where pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, total sugars, soluble pectin, color (L, C, and h), total phenols, vitamin C, monomeric anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were evaluated using the method DPPH.
The analyses are described as follows: pH was determined using a pHmeter Tec - 3MP (TECNAL) according to the technique of AOAC . The determination of titratable acidity was conducted according to Instituto Adolfo Lutz . Results were expressed in percentage of citric acid. The digital portable Refractometer PAL-1 (ATAGO) was used to determine the soluble solids. Results were expressed in percentage of soluble solids .
Total sugars were determined by the method of Antrona .
Results were expressed in mg.100g-1. The extraction of pectin
soluble substances was conducted according to the technique
described by McCready & McComb  and the determination
was made by Bitter & Muir  method. Results were expressed
in mg of galacturonic acid. 100g-1 of fruit. The total phenols were
made by Folin-Ciocalteau method . Results were expressed
in mg of galic acid equivalent (AGE).100g-1 of fruit. The content
of ascorbic acid was determined by Strohecker & Henning 
method. Results were expressed in mg of ascorbic acid.100g-1of
fruit. The analysis of anthocyanins was conducted according to
the method of differential pH proposed by Giusti & Wrolstad
. Results were expressed in mg.100g-1 of sample. The
determination of antioxidant activity was conducted by means
of the method of sequestration of radicals DPPH by antioxidants,
according to Brand-Williams, Cuvelier & Berset , adapted by
Rufino et al. . Results were expressed in % of sequestration
of free radical (% FRS). The coloration was performed using a
Minolta colorimeter CR-400 in the model CIE L*a*b*, as well
as illuminant D65. The variables L*, angle hue (h°) and chroma
(C*) were considered. All analyses were conducted in triplicate
and expressed as means ± standard deviation by means of the
software MS Excel (Microsoft Office 2010 Professional).
The pH (Table 1) of ripe (Figure 1) infrutescences was
higher, while acidity was higher in green infrutescences. Soluble
solids, total sugars and soluble pectin were higher in ripe
infrutescences. Phenolic compound content and antioxidant
activities determined by DPPH were higher in green-mature
infrutescences. Table 1 presents the reduction of vitamin C
content as maturing advances. In relation to anthocyanins, they
were found only in ripe infrutescences. Regarding the color, the
green-mature infrutescences of Miconia ciliata were clearer and
presented more vivid color, while in relation to the hue angle, the
green-mature was green and the ripe was purple.
In general during maturing of fruits there is an increase of
pH and decrease of total acidity resultant from the reduction
of organic acids . According to the classification of Franco
and Landgraf , foods with pH equal or inferior to 4.0 may be
classified as acid and very acid, respectively, in this sense greenmature
and mature infrutescences of Miconia ciliata may be
considered very acid and acid, respectively. The sugar content,
besides determining the degree of sweetness, also provides
information on the technological potential, microbiological
susceptibility and together with acidity is correlated with the
parameter of flavor quality. The sweetness of fruits depends on
the soluble solids, since most of them are sugars . In relation
to pectin, one of the main components of primary cell wall, it is
frequently described as a highly complex polysaccharide rich in
galacturonic acid . It represents about one third of the cell
wall structure  and its solubilization is related to the fruit
The phenolic compound content reduced as maturing
advanced. Some authors associated the reduction of antioxidant
capacity along maturing with the decrease of phenolic
compounds and other bioactive compounds [24,25]. Neves et
al.  also observed the reduction of vitamin C along maturing
in 8 different Amazon fruits. Considering the daily need of
vitamin C intake for women (75mg) and children (45mg) ,
100g of Miconia ciliata infrutescences can attend this need, thus
demonstrating that they represent sources of vitamin C. The
presence of anthocyanins only in ripe infrutescences may be
explained by its synthesis and degradation of chlorophylls that
occur parallel to the development and maturing of fruits [27,28].
Miconia ciliata infrutescences have sensory and functional
appeal, with significant amounts of total phenols and vitamin C.
However the study of anti-nutritional factors is recommended
since it is a non-conventional food.
The authors would like to thank the Coordination of
Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (Coordenação de
Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES), the
National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico
- CNPq) and Foundation for Research Support of the State of
Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) for their fundamental financial support
for this work.