Warning: include_once(../article_type.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/ctbeb/CTBEB.MS.ID.555916.php on line 114
Warning: include_once(): Failed opening '../article_type.php' for inclusion (include_path='.:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/pear:/opt/alt/php56/usr/share/php') in /home/suxhorbncfos/public_html/ctbeb/CTBEB.MS.ID.555916.php on line 114
Department of Pharmacognosy, V. V. Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, India
Submission: April 20, 2018; Published: June 22, 2018
*Corresponding author: DSNBK Prasanth, Department of Pharmacognosy, V. V. Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seshadri Rao Knowledge Village, Gudlavalleru, India, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: DSNBK Prasanth, A Lakshmana Rao. Pharmacognostic Study of Eranthemum nigrum Stem. Curr Trends Biomedical Eng &
Biosci. 2018; 15(4): 555916. DOI: 10.19080/CTBEB.2018.15.555916.
Objective:To analyze the pharmacognostic characteristics and physiochemical parameters of the stem of Eranthemum nigrum [E. nigrum].
Methods:Microscopic characters and powder analysis had been carried out with the help of a microscope. The physiochemical properties such as loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water soluble ash value, extractive values and fluorescence of E. nigrum had been performed.
Results:The color, shape, size, odor, and surface characteristics were reported from the stem and powdered stem material of E. nigrum. Light microscope images of cross section and powdered stem revealed the presence of Phloem fibers, Lignified Xylem Vessels, Lignified xylem fibers and Parenchyma cells. Phytochemical testing confirmed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, amino acids and proteins.. Physicochemical parameters such as moisture content, ash value, extractive value and fluorescent behavior of stem powder have also been established.
Conclusion:The current research would be useful in order to supplement the information regarding standardization, identity and in performing additional explorations in Ayurvedic system of medicine.
Medicinal plants are usually playing a significant part in traditional medicines intended for therapy of various health issues. However a crucial hurdle, which has impeded the promotion in the usage of alternative medications in the developed countries, is lack of evidence of documentation and absence of stringent quality control measures. Additionally, there is a dependence on the data of all study meted out on traditional medicines by way of documentation. Keeping this issue, it is now quite necessary to generate assurance about the standardization of the plant as well as its parts to be used like a medication. During the process of standardization, we are able to take advantage of various techniques and methodology to achieve our goal in a phase wise approach e.g. pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies. These techniques and methods are helpful in recognition and standardization of the plant material. Appropriate characterization and quality assurance of starting material is a crucial step to ensure reproducible quality of herbal medicine to assist people in order to justify its safety and effectiveness. Because of this reason, we have executed pharmacognostic studies of Eranthemum nigrum belongs to family Acanthaceae . This sort of research is not going to help in authentication but additionally ensures reproducibility of herbal goods in promoting .
In the present study, we have been focusing our exploration on one of the commonly available plant in India i.e., Eranthemum nigrum, belongs to family Acanthaceae. The family Acanthaceae consists of almost 4000 species of exotic plants. Various species of Genus Eranthemum being utilized traditionally for extensive kinds of ethno medicinal purposes. The genus Eranthemum, with around 138 species, some of the important species include E. austrosinensis, E. burmanicum, E. capense, E. ciliatum, E. erythrochilum, E. griffithii, E. macrophyllum, E. macrostachyus, E. obovatum, E. pulchellum, E. purpurascens, E. roseum, E. strictum, E. tapingense, E. tubiflorum and E. watti. The Eranthemum nigrum [Acanthaceae] is native to Pacific Islands. The shrub attains height a height of 1.5-1.8m. The upper surface of leaves is blackish purple and the lower surface purplish with dark veins. The flowers are in terminal erect spikes, white and
spotted rose at the base . Plants are adapted to partial shade. The leaves are elliptical, glossy or dull with smooth margins and acute tips [4,5]. All parts of this plant are widely used as a folklore medicine for the treatment of various ailments by the Indian traditional healer. Ethno medicinally, the genus Eranthemum has been documented various pharmacological activities including antipyretic , antidiabetic , antiulcer , antimicrobial , larvicidal, ovicidal and pupicidal against Anopheles stephensi ,
gastroprotective  and antiinflammatory .
A literature study and screening of scientific data says a lot
of native medicines have already been investigated as regards
their botany and chemistry is concerned, however a systematic
standardization including Pharmacognostical and physicochemical
study is still lacking. The present investigation of
Eranthemum nigrum. [Acanthaceae] is therefore taken up
to establish certain botanical and chemical standards which
would help in crude drug identification as well as in checking
adulteration, if any. Further, the study will greatly help in quality
assurance of finished products of herbal drugs [13,14].
The plant was obtained from V. V. Institute of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Gudlavalleru, Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh, India
during the month of September 2017 and authenticated by Dr.
K. Madhava Chetty, Taxonomist at Sri Venkateswara University
Tirupati, India. The plant was deposited at the herbarium for
future reference. One portion of the stem is preserved in formalin:
acetic acid: alcohol mixture for histological studies and the
remaining portion was shade dried, powdered and sieved through
20 mesh and kept in an air tight container for future use.
All analytical grade chemicals were utilized in this study
were procured form E. Merck, Germany, absolute alcohol,
phloroglucinol, acetic acid, chloral hydrate, H2SO4, NaOH, HNO3,
FeCl3, distilled water, Conc. HCl and chloroform.
Morphological evaluation: Organoleptic evaluation of E.
nigrum stem has been carried out in accordance the colour, size,
odour, shape and taste as per WHO Quality Control methods of
herbal medicine .
Preparation of sections: Microscopic studies had been
done by preparing thin hand section of the stem with the help of
sharp cutting edge of the blade, then cleared with chloral hydrate
solution, stained with phloroglucinol-hydrochloric acid [1:1] and
mounted in glycerin.
Powdered microscopy: The powder microscopy was carried
out in accordance with the procedure described in Khandelwal
Preparation of extracts and preliminary phytochemical
analysis: The powdered material had been extracted with various
solvents according to its polarity i.e., chloroform, methanol and
water. 5g stem powder was extracted with 20ml of the respective
solvent by maceration at room temperature for 24 hours. Then,
filtered through whatmann filter paper and collect the filtrate,
concentrated with rota-evaporator. Then, the extracts had been
subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening according to
standard methods [16,17].
Physicochemical analysis: Physicochemical parameters
such as ash value, moisture content and extractive values were
determined according to the procedures mentioned in WHO
quality control methods for herbal materials .
Fluorescence analysis: Various reagents were utilized to
check the fluorescence activity. In this, 0.1g of stem powder was
blended with 1.5ml of respective reagent (Table 4). The mixture
was placed on slide for a minute and observed under visible light,
short ultra-violet light [254nm] and long ultraviolet light [365nm]
Stem: Transverse [TS] section of stem showed barrel shaped
cells constituting the epidermis, which was arranged compactly
without intercellular spaces with multicellular uniseriate covering
trichomes. The hypodermis was composed of collenchyma cells,
which were arranged in 5-6 layered, provided additional protection
and support. It was followed by parenchymatous cells arranged in
6-7 layers. Vascular bundles were conjoint, collateral and open.Xylem was present in the continuous ring consisting of vessels,
fibers, and xylem parenchyma. Phloem consisted of phloem fibers,
sieve cells, companion cells and phloem parenchyma. The central
portion is occupied by parenchymatous cells as shown in (Figure
Powder microscopy: The crude powder of stem was buff
in color with characteristic odor and taste. Microscopic study
of the powder showed revealed different characters such as
Phloem fibers, Lignified Xylem Vessels, Lignified xylem fibers and
Parenchyma cells (Figure 5).
Preliminary phytochemical analysis: The results of
qualitative phytochemical analysis of crude powder of E. nigrum
Stem were shown in Table 2.
“+”-Present “ –“ -Absent
Physicochemical parameters: The results attained from
various determinations of physicochemical analysis are produced
in Table 3.
Fluorescence analysis: Fluorescence analysis of stem
powder was performed out after treating with different solvents.
Fluorescence was observed at 254 and 365nm comparing its
change of color in the visible light. The observations are presented
in Table 4 shows the variation in color.
Indian systems of medicine utilize majority of the crude drugs
which are of plant origin. It is important that standards need to
be set down to control and check the identity of the plant and
confirm its quality before use. Hence a detailed pharmacognostic
assessment is extremely an important prerequisite. In accordance
with World Health Organization [WHO] the organoleptic and
histological description of a medicinal plant could be the first
step towards establishing its identity and purity and should be
performed before to any tests tend to be undertaken .
E. nigrum, extensively utilized in conventional medicines
has tremendous therapeutically potential due to its various
biological activities. The prominent diagnostic characteristics of
stem were Phloem fibers, Lignified Xylem Vessels, Lignified xylem
fibers and Parenchyma cells. These characters can be utilized for
standardization of drugs as well as useful for preparation of plant
monograph and also reduces the possibilities of adulteration,
when the drug is available in the powdered form studies of
physicochemical parameters can serve as an important source
to judge the purity and quality of crude drugs. Ash values are
utilized to establish the quality and purity of the crude drug. It
implies the existence of various impurities like carbonate, oxalate
and silicate. The water soluble ash is water soluble part of total
ash, employed to calculate the amount of inorganic substances
found in the drugs. The acid insoluble ash comprises mostly
silica and indicates contamination with earthy matter. The
moisture content of drugs might be at minimum level in order
to suppress the growth of microorganisms like bacteria, yeast or
fungi during storage. The extractive values are helpful to judge the
chemical constituents present in the crude drug and also assist
in the evaluation of particular constituents soluble in a specific
solvent. Total ash and acid insoluble ash are essential indices to
illustrate the quality and purity of the herbal medicine. Total ash
consists of physiological ash, which is derived from plant tissue
itself, and nonphysiological ash that is usually from atmosphere
contaminations includes sand and soil. Total ash content alone
is not adequate to indicate the quality of herbal medicine,
because the plant materials usually contain a significant level of
physiological ash, calcium oxalate in particular. Therefore, the acid
insoluble ash content is another index to indicate the quality of
herbal medicine . The phytochemical analysis of extracts viz.,
petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water were analyzed
and it indicates the presence of steroids, alkaloids, tannins,
saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides, amino acids and proteins.
Standardization of herbal drugs is very much crucial because
they are produced from heterogeneous sources which could
result in variations. These kinds of variations can cause spurious
results in various pharmacological and phytochemical studies.
Eranthemum nigrum stem is recognized for many therapeutical
properties, therefore, the current study might be beneficial to
supplement the information in respective to its identification,
authentication, and standardization; no such information is
available for the same till date.