Nano Technology in Medicine and Future Implications: A Mini Review
Khursheed Ahmad Wani1* and Richa Kothari2
1Department of Environmental Science, ITM University, India
2Department of Chemistry, ITM University, India
Submission: March 07, 2018; Published: May 08, 2018
*Corresponding author: Khursheed Ahmad Wani, Department of Environmental Science, ITM University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India, Email: kuurshidevs@gmail,com
How to cite this article: Khursheed A W,Richa K. Nano Technology in Medicine and Future Implications: A Mini Review. Curr Trends Biomedical Eng & Biosci. 2018; 14(1): 555880.DOI:10.19080/CTBEB.2018.14.555880
Nanopartides hold great potential in the field of medicine. In this review we have discussed some of the diseases that are treated by the use of nantechnology. Nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years almost in every field with special emphasis on nanomedicine and nanobiology. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. However, it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents under consideration.
The transformation of a molecule to nano scale measure changes the properties of the material, for example, increment in surface region, strength of quantum impacts regularly connected with minute sizes, higher surface zone to volume proportion and so forth and fluctuates material’s attractive, warm and electrical property. For instance, copper which is obscure at large scale ends up straightforward at nano scale. Thus the properties of gold at nanoscale makes change in dissolving point from 200 °C 1068 °C and color changes from yellow to blue to violet alongside the adjustment in its synergist property .
However, ingested species may likewise impact the potential poisonous quality of the inhaled particles . For nanoparticles the circumstance is diverse as their size opens the potential for intersection the different organic boundaries inside the body. From a positive perspective, particularly the possibility to cross the blood brain obstruction may open new routes for sedate conveyance into the cerebrum. Likewise, the nanosize additionally considers access into the cell and different cell compartments including the core. A large number of substances are as of now under scrutiny for the arrangement of nanoparticles for drug delivery, fluctuating from organic substances like egg whites, gelatine and phospholipids for liposomes, and more substances of a compound sort like different polymers and strong metal containing nanoparticles. Clearly, the potential association with tissues and cells, and the potential harmfulness, incredibly relies upon the genuine size of the nanoparticle detailing .
Numerous specialists append ethylene glycol particles to nanoparticles that convey remedial medications to growth tumors. The ethylene glycol atoms prevent white platelets from perceiving the nanoparticles as outside materials, enabling them to course in the circulatory system sufficiently long to connect to malignancy tumors. Currently, nanoparticles containing restorative medications covered with films from red platelets and it is demonstrated that these nanoparticles will flow in a mouse’s circulatory system for just about two days, rather than the couple of hours as observed for nanoparticles utilizing ethylene glycol particles [www.understandingnano.com].
Nanoparticles can be utilized as a part of focused medication conveyance at the site of infection to enhance the take-up of poorly soluble medications , the focusing of medications to a particular site, and medication bioavailability. A few drugs including paclitaxel , doxorubicin , 5-fluorouracil  and dexamethasone  have been effectively studied utilizing nanomaterials by the studies. Polylactic/ glycolic corrosive (PLGA) and polylactic corrosive (PLA) based nanoparticles have been experimented to exemplify dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid with an intracellular site of activity. Dexamethasone is a chemotherapeutic specialist that is hostile to anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. The medication binds to the cytoplasmic receptors and the consequent medication receptor complex is transported to the core bringing about the declaration of specific qualities that control cell multiplication . The nanoparticles that discharge higher dosages of medication for delayed timeframe totally restrained expansion of vascular smooth muscle cells have been developed. Further, Scientists have built up a nanoparticle that uses a protein to connect to damage regions of veins . This enables medications to be connected straightforwardly to the harmed portion of the artery. Experiments demonstrated that utilizing nanoparticles to focus on the conveyance of the coagulation busting drug may lessen conceivable side effects. The coagulation busting drug was connected to a group of nanoparticles that break separated in areas of tumultuous blood stream, similar to that found when a blood stream is limited by a coagulation. Nanoparticles containing iron oxide that permits the nanoparticles to be coordinated, by a magnetic field, to stents . This could enable medications to be conveyed straightforwardly to stents set in supply routes. Medications to treat glaucoma are being connected to nanodiamonds which are installed in contact focal points. Nanotechnology may have wider applications for treatment of eye disorders like drug delivery, study of pathomechanism of eye diseases, regeneration of the optic nerve, and counteracting neovascularization involved in some degenerative disorders. The medication particles are discharged from the nanodiamonds are in contact with tears, giving a more steady dosing than frequently happens utilizing eye drops .
Analysts are enhancing dental embeds by adding nanotubes to the surface of the embed material. They have shown to the capacity to stack the nanotubes with calming drugs that can be connected specifically to the region around the embed part . Researchers have created nanoparticles that discharge insulin when glucose levels rise. The nanoparticles contain both insulin and a protein that break down in abnormal amounts of glucose .
Another strategy being created to discharge insulin utilizes a wipe like grid that contains insulin and also nanocapsules containing a chemical. At the point when the glucose level ascents the nanocapsules discharge hydrogen particles, which bind to the filaments making up the lattice . The hydrogen particles make the filaments emphatically charged, repulsing each other and making openings in the framework through which insulin is discharged . Researchers are creating nanoparticles that would delivery be able to drugs over the mind obstruction to handle neurologic clutters. A technique being created to handle immune system illnesses utilizes nanoparticles to convey antigens for a specific malady into the circulatory system. The antigens reset the invulnerable framework, preventing white platelets from assaulting sound cells. This strategy has been tried in the lab on mice with an ailment like different sclerosis with promising outcomes .
Skin creams that utilizations proteins got from immature microorganisms to avert maturing of the skin. These proteins are typified in liposome nanoparticles which converge with the films of skin cells to permit conveyance of the proteins. Experts have built up a nanoparticle that can sneak past bodily fluid covering surfaces, for example, lung tissue. This capacity to infiltrate the bodily fluid covering ought to give the ability to coat lung tissue with helpful medications [18,19].
Nanoparticles are quickly turning into the focal point of most endeavors going for targets and site-particular medication conveyance. The focus on capacity of nanoparticles relies upon specific factors, for example, molecule measure, surface charge, surface adjustment and hydrophobicity. Constrained information about the poisonous quality of nanoparticles is a noteworthy concern and absolutely demands more consideration. The most encouraging examination in nanoparticle generation is by means of utilizing supercritical liquids which are natural agreeable and free of poisonous solvents. Much research is right now being performed to conquer these obstacles which will build up nanoparticle-based medication conveyance as the highest quality level for site-particular therapeutics.
There also is an exciting possibility to overcome issues of medication protection in target cells and to encouraging development of medications to overcome obstructions, for example, those in the brain. The test, nonetheless, remains the exact portrayal of atomic targets and to guarantee that these particles are communicated just in the focused on organs to anticipate consequences for sound tissues. Besides, it is essential to comprehend the destiny of the medications once conveyed to the core and other delicate cells organelles. Besides, on the grounds that nanosystems increment productivity of medication conveyance, the measurements may require recalibration.