Assessment of Different Sunflower Genotypes
under Agro-Climatic Conditions of District
Saif Ullah1*, Saad Ahmad2, Rizwan Khan3 and Amir Sohail4
1Department of Agronomy, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
2Department of PG & G, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
3Department of Plant Pathology and the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
4Department of Agriculture, Chemistry and the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
Submission: January 15, 2018 ; Published: January 24, 2018
*Corresponding author: Saif Ullah, Department of Agronomy, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Saif U, Saad A, Rizwan K, Amir S. Assessment of Different Sunflower Genotypes under Agro-Climatic Conditions of District
Malakand Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Curr Trends Biomedical Eng & Biosci. 2018; 11(2): 555810. DOI: 10.19080/
The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate sunflower hybrids under agro climatic conditions of district Malakand. A set of 8 sunflower hybrids was evaluated in randomized complete block design having two replications in spring 2014. Each sunflower genotype was sown in five meter long two rows 75cm apart with P-P distance 25cm. Data were recorded on yield and associated traits such as days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter, grain yield and 100 grain weight. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all the studied traits. The minimum days (80) to flower initiation were observed in Hybrid-14013 while maximum days (85) to flower initiation were observed in Hybrid-14009. Data regarding flower completion showed that Hybrid-14021 took maximum days (95) in flower completion while minimum days (86) was recorded for Hybrid-14013. Data pertaining to plant maturity compiled that Hybrid 14021 took maximum days (120) followed by one day (119) interval rest of all. A maximum plant height (132cm) was observed in Hybrid-14035 while minimum of 109cm in Hybrid-14013. Data related to head diameter showed that a maximum diameter of 17.80cm was recorded for Hybrid-14021 and minimum of 14.20 cm for Hybrid-14048. Maximum 100 seed weight 5g recorded in Hybrid-14041 while maximum (1666kg ha-1) grain yield were noticed in Hybrid 14021 and minimum yield of (661 kg ha-1) in Hybrid-14048. It is concluded that Hybrid- 14021 performed better in agro-climatic condition of Malakand valley and produced maximum yield.
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an annual plant native to the Americas. Early settlers grew sunflower for food and garden decoration. European brought sunflower along trade routes to Spain, Italy, Egypt, Afghanistan, China, Russia . It possesses a large flowering head, which is inflorescence of sunflower. The sunflower is named for its huge, fiery blooms, whose shape and image are often used to depict the sun. It has a rough, hairy stem, broad, coarsely toothed, rough leaves and circular heads of flowers. The heads consist of many individual flowers which mature into seeds, often in the hundreds, on a receptacle base.
In Pakistan although it was introduced as an oilseed crop 40 years back but its expansion in acreage and production is fluctuating due to various production and socio-economic constraints. Its seed contains 35-55% oil contents. Research work on this crop has shown that there is great potential of growing it under all the soil and climatic conditions in rain-fed
as well as irrigated farming system in different agro-ecological zones (PARC).
The total cultivated area of Pakistan is 20.69 million ha. Out of this cultivated area, 16.48 million ha or 79.65% of the total cultivated area are irrigated. In 1970-71, oilseeds occupied nearly 3% of the total cultivated area, which decreased to 2.5% by 2002-03 . Major share in domestic production of edible oil comes from cottonseed and canola, 67 and 19.6%, respectively. The remaining 13.4% are contributed mainly by sunflower . Edible oil is basic need of every country. In country like Pakistan, About 80% of the total needs are met through imports while only 30% come from local production. Major growing areas of sunflower in Pakistan includes, Multan, Bahawalpur, Sargodha, Faisalabad in Punjab, Peshawar, Malakand in Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Khairpur and districts of Hyderabad division in Sindh . During the year 2011-12, the total availability of edible oil was 2.748 million tons. Local production of edible oil remained 0.636 million tons while imports were 2.148 mill
tons. The import bill during 2011-12 stood at Rs.216.4 billion
(US$ 2.426 billion). During the year 2012-13 (July-March), 1.738
million tons of edible oil valued at PRs. 153.3 billion (US$ 1.595
billion) has been imported. The local production during 2012-13
(July-March) was 0.612 million tons. Total availability of edible
oil from all sources is provisionally estimated at 2.35 million
tons during 2012-13 (July-March). (Economic survey of Pakistan
I. Sunflower oil is used as edible oil in many parts of the
II. Sunflower oil could be used as fuel for cars or trucks.
III. Sunflower oil is an ingredient in salad dressings and
IV. Sunflowers are used to prepare some special paints.
V. Sunflower oil is used to prepare certain kinds of glue.
VI. Soaps made with sunflower oil.
VII. It has been used in certain paints, varnishes and
plastics because of good semidrying properties without color
modification associated with oils high in linoleic acid.
VIII. The use of sunflower oil (and other vegetable oils)
as a pesticide carrier, and in the production of agrichemicals,
surfactants, adhesives, plastics, fabric softeners, lubricants and
coatings has been explored
IX. Also use as bird feed.
X. In human diet it is used as snacks and this trend is
increased since 15years.
XI. It can be used as a double crop after early harvested
small grains or vegetables, an emergency crop, or in areas with a
season too short to produce mature corn for silage.
XII. Non-dehulled or partly dehulled sunflower meal has
been substituted successfully for soybean meal in isonitrogenous
(equal protein) diets for ruminant animals.
XIII. The growing herb is extremely useful for drying damp
soils, because of its remarkable ability to absorb quantities of
XIV. The Sunflower is a good bee plant, as it furnishes hive
bees with large quantities of wax and nectar.
XV. The unexpanded buds boiled and served like Artichokes
form a pleasant dish.
XVI. Sunflowers, when the stalks are dry, are as hard as
wood and make an excellent fire.
XVII. Of the ash obtained from burning the Sunflower stems
and heads (apart from seeds) 62 per cent consists of potash.
XVIII. Being so rich in oil, they are too stimulating
to use alone and should only be used in combination with other
XIX. The Chinese grow this plant extensively, and it is
believed that a large portion of its fiber is mixed with their silks.
The sunflower is a member of the plant family Asteraceae, or
Compositae. Asters are remarkable for their type of inflorescence,
which is a head of florets. The head is also called capitulum. The
“flower” of the sunflower is actually made up of lots and lots of
little flowers, called florets. The center, darker florets are disc
florets; while the outer, petal-like ones are ray florets. Sunflower
seeds are indehiscent achenes. The genus Helianthus, to which
the Sunflower belongs, contains about fifty species. It is an
annual herb, with a rough, hairy stem, 3 to 12 feet high, broad,
coarsely toothed, rough leaves, 3 to 12 inches long and circular
heads of flowers, 3 to 6 inches wide in wild specimens and often
a foot or more in cultivation. Chromosome number of sunflower
is 34. Sunflower is highly cross pollinated crop. For instance, the
sunflower genome 3.5 billion bases long , slightly longer than
the human genome .
Sunflower is a member of the aster family. A capitulum or
head, the characteristic inflorescence of the sunflower family
(Asteraceae). The inflorescence consists of ray flowers, disk
flowers, or both ray and disk flowers. The ovary of each flower
is situated below the attachment of the corolla and stamens, a
condition referred to as epigenous or inferior. The disc florets
are located in the centre of the composite flower, and the ray
florets bear the outer ring of petal-like structures. Ray florets are
sterile, and disc florets have both male and female structures,
including a single ovary that develops into a sunflower seed. A
single flower head may have up to two thousand disc florets,
each with the potential to develop into a seed (Figure 1).
A sunflower stem sample has many vascular bundles along
the edge of its sample. Unlike other plants, fibers are visible
next to the vascular bundles. The center part of the sample is
called pith, in which most cells are found. Stem have leaves and a
terminal head (Figure 2).
The leaf of a sunflower is considered a simple leaf, which
consists of a single blade. The plumule gives rise to the first leaves
of the plant that will go on to grow into organs for transpiration,
with the opening and closing of the stomata found within the cell
structure of leaves; for photosynthesis, and for other metabolic
Seed yield is a quantitative character, which is influenced
more from climate and environmental factors in sunflower
because of being controlled by large number of genes. To increase
seed yield, the study of direct and indirect effects of yield
components provides the basis for successful breeding program
. Head diameter, 1000 seed weight, plant height are other
valuable yield parameters that determine yield improvement in
the sunflower .
A total of 8 sunflower hybrids obtained from NARC oilseed
section were sown in the field of district Malakand during
February 2014 for yield and associated traits. Plant material was
sown in randomized complete block (RCB) design having three
replications. Each entry was assigned a two row plot having row
to row and plant to plant distance of 75 and 25cm, respectively.
The Research field is located at 34.56 ˚N, 71.96 ˚E, at an
altitude of 454m above sea level in the Malakand valley. Malakand
is located about 1437 km north of the Indian Ocean, 156km from
river Kabul, 96km from river Swat and has semiarid climate.
The research farm is irrigated by the Dargai canal from the river
Swat. Soil texture is clay loam, low in organic matter (0.87%),
extractable phosphorus (6.57mg kg-1), exchangeable potassium
(121 mg kg-1), and alkaline (pH 7-8.5) and is calcareous in
nature. The climate of the area is semiarid where the mean
annual rainfall ranges (400 to 500mm), 60-80% rainfall occurs
in summer, while the remaining 30-40% rainfall occurs in winter
A. Parameters studied: Data were recorded on the
B. Days to flowering initiation (DFI): Days to flowering
initiation was recorded from date of sowing till about five
percent of the buds opened flowers in each plot.
C. Days to flower completion (DFC): Flower completion
data was recorded when about 90% of the buds opened flower
in each plot. This was also calculated from date of planting.
D. Days to Maturity: Data for days to maturity was
recorded when back of the heads turned yellow and bracts
started turning brownish in color.
E. Plant height (cm): A total of five plants randomly
selected in each plot were measured from ground level to
attachment of head with stem to record data on plant height.
Plant height was recorded at the time of maturity.
F. Head diameter (cm): Head diameter was calculated as
it is yield contributing trait in sunflower. Five plants from each
line were selected at random and data for head diameter was
recorded. Head diameter was measured from one edge of the
disk to other.
G. 100-seed weight (g): 100 seed weight was also
calculated for each hybrid. An average of three samples of
100-seeds for each hybrid, were taken to record data on 100-
seed weight. Seed was weighed in grams with the help of an
electronic balance up to two decimal points.
H. Grain Yield (kg ha-1): Total produce after threshing was
sun dried for 2-3 days and then seed was weighed with the help
of an electronic balance for each hybrid.
I. Statistical analysis: Data after compilation was
statistically analysed using STATISTICA 8.1 software and means
were separated by LSD test.
Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (P=0.01)
differences among all the Genotypes (Table 2). Days to flower
initiation ranged from 80-85 days. Hybrid-14001 took minimum
days (80) to flower initiation whereas Hybrid-14009 took
maximum days (85) for flower initiation (Table 3). These results
are partially in line with those of Shah . The differences
in results may be due to differences in Genotypes or due to
Analysis of variance revealed that days to flower completion
showed significant (P<0.05) differences among all the
Genotypes (Table 2). Days to flower completion ranged from 80-92 days. Hybrid-14023 took minimum days (86) for their
flower completion while Hybrid-14035 took maximum days
(92) to complete their flowers (Table 3). Furrkh  also found
significant variation for days to flower completion.
***Significant at 5 and 1% level of probability respectively, whereas
Analysis of variance revealed that days to maturity showed
non-significant (P>0.05) differences among all the Genotypes
(Table 2). Days to maturity ranged from 119-120. Hybrid-14005
took minimum days (119) to be matured whereas Hybrid-14021
took maximum days (120) to be matured (Table 3). Khalid 
also found non-significant differences for days to maturity.
Analysis of variance revealed that plant height showed nonsignificant
(P>0.05) differences among all the genotypes (Table
2). Plant height ranged from 110-135cm. Hybrid-14013 had
minimum (110cm) plant height whereas Hybrid-14021 had
maximum (135cm) plant height (Table 3). Khalid  found the
plant height to be non-significant.
Analysis of variance revealed that head diameter showed
significant (P<0.05) differences among all the Genotypes. Head
diameter ranged from 14-18cm. Hybrid-14048 had minimum
(14cm) head diameter while Hybrid-14021 had maximum
(18cm) head diameter. These results confirmed the earlier
findings of Arshad  also found significant variation for head
Analysis of variance showed non-significant (P>0.05)
differences for grain yield among all the genotypes (Table 2).
Grain yield ranged from 817-1666kg ha-1. Hybrid-14041 had
minimum grain yield (817 kg ha-1) whereas Hybrid-14021 had
maximum grain yield (1666 kg ha-1) (Table 3) Khalid  also
found Non-significant relation for Grain Yield kg ha-1.
Analysis of variance revealed that 100-grain weight showed
non-significant (P>0.05) differences among all the genotypes
(Table 2). 100-grain weight ranged from 04-05g. Hybrid-14013
had minimum 100-grain weight (04g) whereas Hybrid-14041
had maximum 100-grain weight (05g) (Table 2). Anjum  also
got non-significant difference for 100 grain weight.
There is sufficient genetic variability in the tested sunflower
hybrids which is useful tool for grouping of different hybrids
according to their adaptation through the environmental
condition, Hybrid 14021 produced highest grain yield (1666kg
ha-1) followed by hybrid 14009 (1517kg ha-1) and thus are
considered best among all hybrids evaluated during this study.
From the above study and data obtained from results it is
recommended that Hybrid 14021 and 14009 fits well in the agroclimatic
conditions of Malakand valley and produce maximum