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Experimental Investigation of Partial Replacement of Cement with Glass Powder and Eggshell Powder Ash in Concrete
Vijayvenkatesh Chandrasekaran*, Vasanth M, Thirunavukkarasu S and Manikanda Prabu T
Department of Civil Engineering, St. Josephs College of Engineering and Technology, India
Submission: April 30, 2018; Published: June 12, 2018
*Corresponding Author: Vijayvenkatesh Chandrasekaran, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Josephs College of Engineering and Technology, Anna University Chennai, India, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article: Vijayvenkatesh C, Vasanth M, Thirunavukkarasu S, Manikanda P T. Experimental Investigation of Partial Replacement of
Cement with Glass Powder and Eggshell Powder Ash in Concrete. Civil Eng Res J. 2018; 5(3): 555662. DOI:10.19080/CERJ.2018.05.555662
Cement developed manufacturing is solitary carbon-dioxide emitting sources besides deformation in addition to ablaze of fossil fuel. Emission of greenhouse gages, such as emitted CO2 to the ambiance. The employment identified the option of by glass fine particles as the incomplete substitute as 0%, 20%, 30%, 40% and intended for its compressive strength up to 7, 14 & 28 existence of era and be compared by conventional concrete. Departure squanders fabric failed to emphasize waste can be old additional efficiently and cause an environmental problem. Glass powder and eggshell powder material is very fine powder material obtained as byproducts of glass during sawing and shaping, and not recycling its causes an environmental problem in the world. The option of using it glass ash powder separately as partial replacement of cement on concrete where studied and evaluated based upon % replacement of cement on concrete where studied and evaluated based upon % of the partial cement replacement with both glass powder.
The attention construction of society in use squander or recycled materials in added the concrete is rising since of emphasis located on sustainable construction. The glass (be an still fabric. Which should be recycled . The chemical properties. In adding use waste glass like cullet in glass industrialized waste glass powder in addition to eggshell ash powder crushed into specific size for uses as strengthening cement inside a variety of application .
Manufacturing processes, service industries, and municipal solid wastes are the sources of production of numerous waste materials . Concerns related to disposal of the generated wastes have tremendously increased with the increasing awareness about the environment the use of waste products in concrete not only makes it economical but also helps in reducing disposal problems . Reuse of bulky wastes is considered the best environmental alternative for solving the problem of disposal. One such waste is plastic, which could be used in various applications. Sustainability is an idea for concern for the well being of our planet with continued growth and human development. (the squander glass
as of inside and approximately the little shops are crammed full because a waste and willing like the landfill. Squander glass is compressed into particular size intended for use because collective in an assortment of application such as hose filtration, substitute of cement replacement in concrete. The crushed and compressed concrete glass be as well used as the substitute of cement in the concrete manufacture, other than due to its flat and stretched out nature which enhances the reduce inside the workability and credited the fall in compressive strength . A glass is a nebulous material by means of high silica content, thus creation it possibly pozzolanic material when the particle size is less than 75μm .study contain exposed that thinly earth glass does not contribute to alkali-silica reaction.
The spire of this study is to lime substance composition of the eggshell to discover its suitability of substitute in the concrete . To identification the viability of utilizing the eggshell as cement substitution material. In the direction of study the strength parameters of the eggshell powder diverse specimens and to contrast it with conservative specimens. Calcium wealthy in eggshell ash powder is a fowl waste by means of chemicalcomposition almost similar to that of limestone . Employ of
eggshell waste as an alternative of natural lime to replace cement
in concrete can contain reimbursement similar to minimizing the
use of cement, conserve usual lime and utilize fabric material .
Obviously to a research eggshell squanders age group in India, the
united states, the united kingdom is 190000, 150000 and 11000
tons per year correspondingly. Eggshell waste can be used as
fertilizer, animal feed ingredients, and other such uses. However,
the majority of the eggshell waste is deposited as landfills .
Eggshell squanders in landfills attract pests due to fond of a casing
and causes tribulations linked with a human being health and
environment. Few experiments test investigations are conducted
to use eggshell waste in civil engineering applications.
Standard concrete cube of size 150×150×150mm were cast
and tested on 7days, 14 days and 28days. Partial substitution
of glass powder and eggshell ash for cement  by 20% (15%
glass powder & 5% eggshell ash), 30% (20% glass powder &
10% eggshell ash), 40% (25% glass powder & 15% eggshell ash)
was tried in the control mix and the compressive strength of the
adjusted mix proportion was studied.
Standard concrete cylinder size 150mm diameter and 300mm
height were cast and tested on 7days, 14 days and 28 days .
Partial substitution of glass powder and eggshell ash for cement
by 20% (15% glass powder & 5% eggshell ash), 30% (20% glass
powder & 10% eggshell ash), 40% (25% glass powder & 15%
eggshell ash) was tried in the control mix and the compressive
strength and split tensile strength (cylinders) of the adjusted mix
proportion were studied (Figure 1).
Ordinary port land cement is the majority ordinary type of
cement in all-purpose use approximately the universe, used as
a essential element of concrete, mortar, stucco, and most nonspecialty
grout . 53 grade (OPC) cement be required to be
convened. And refereed BIS specification is 12269-1987 with a
designed strength for 7, 28 days being a minimum range of 53MPa
or 530kg/sq cm. More than a few types of port land cement are
obtainable by means of the majority widespread ordinary port
land cement (OPC) which is grey in color, but a white port land
cement is also available .
Potable water (6-7.5ppm) by means of cementitious materials
form a cement paste by the procedure of curing process .
The cement paste glue the aggregate jointly, closed the voids.
Contaminated water used to make concrete be able to reason
problems setting or in causing early failure of the structure.
Aggregates are grainy materials such as (20mm) crushed
stone sand, gravels, the length of by means of water and Portland
cement, are in necessary bonding frictions in concrete . Locally
available sand and coarse aggregates were in this experiment
. Specific gravity of coarse aggregate is 2.74.
The glass is a mixture of a number of metallic silicates, one of
which is usually that of an alkali metal . It is an amorphous,
transparent or translucent. It may also be considered as a solidified
super cooled solution of various metallic silicates having infinite
viscosity . The glass powder was obtained by crushing waste
glass pieces in a cone crusher mill. In Figure 2, the 425-micron
passing friction was used for the experiment.
Eggshell contains CaCO3, the Figure 3 shown as eggshell
ash basically contains lime calcium, magnesium carbonate, and
protein contents are available . In a lot of other countries, it
is conventional practice for eggshell to be dehydrated and use as
a source of calcium in creature. The excellence of bright green in
eggshell waste is prejudiced very much by the degree of travel
around to sunlight, rare water and harsh weather conditions .
It is the grained powder ash by means of appropriate quantity
which is sieve to the necessary dimension previous to utilize
Frequently the quantity of water is covered by a amount of
required conditions status in zonal areas. Clause stating, “the
water should be fit for drinking”. Humidity (50%), normal or cold
temp (39%), heavy temp (55-60%).
This test is used to determine the compressive strength
of a concrete cube, which has usually been made from the
fresh concrete cast in a standard test mold . The value of
compressive strength can then be used to assess whether the
batch that the concrete cube represents meets the required
compressive strength. Following cube manufacture and curing,
which should both be closely controlled.
The rate of hydration reaction is temperature reliant. This
income that the concrete reserved at superior temperature
determination increase strength extra rapidly than a comparable
concrete reserved at a lower temperature . Still, the final
strength of the obtainable reserved at a higher temperature will
Powder glass beads are made from finely ground glass, the
main source being broken and unusable bottles and a great
variety of other scrap glasses . Special glasses such as old
cobalt medicine bottles, cold cream jars, and many other types of
glasses from plates, ashtrays, window panes- to name only a feware
occasionally bought new, just for purposes . Waste glass
obtainable nearby in Thanjavur shops is been composed. Previous
to addition glass powder inside concrete it has designate powder
to the preferred dimension in (Figure 4). Crushing period: 30 to
A concrete mixer is a device that homogeneously combines
cement, aggregates, such as a sand or gravel land water to form concrete. Characteristic concrete mixer uses are developing
drum to mix the constituents . Intended for slighter volume
works portable concrete mixers are frequently used. An option
to a machine in (Figure 5). Is integration concreter cement by
hand. This is typically done in a helm barrow. However several
companies have lately begun to put up for sale customized traps
for this reason. The concrete mixer was invented by Columbus
industrialist Gephardt jaeger.
The proposed work shall be carried out the laboratories of
civil engineering departments of St. Joseph college of engineering
and technology, Thanjavur. The routine testing facilities are
available in our college itself.
Batching: Usually batching is done by volume but most
stipulation necessitates so as to batching be complete through
mass quite than volume. The % of an accurate dimension of
Quantity of cement: A quantity of cement mix exceeds = 30%
(scale capacity), the measuring accuracy of 1% of the necessary
mass. Intended for minor batches then the measuring accuracy
should be within 4% of the necessary quantity.
Dimensions of aggregates: It fine angular crushed structure,
9.5mm, and 37.5mm diameter. Characteristically most common
size of aggregate (20mm).
Quantity of water: Is measured inside volumetric quantity
amount as 1-liter water =1kg cement.
Mixing of concrete: Mix design is defined as the development
of select appropriate ingredient of concrete and formative their
relative proportions .
Placing: Cube casting into the molds shall be provided pored
in the concrete with a base plate and they shall be as per IS:
Demolding: Test cubes should be demanded between 16
and 24 hours after they have made. If after this period of time the
concrete has not achieved sufficient strength to enable remolding
without damaging the cube then the remolding should be delayed
for a further 24 hours . When removing the concrete cube
from the mold, take the mold apart compressive strength may be
Curing: Curing is the process in which the concrete is
protected from loss of moisture and kept within a reasonable
temperature range. This process results in concrete with increased
strength and decreased permeability. Curing is also a key player in
mitigating cracks, which can severely affect durability.
The concrete slump test is an experiential test that measures
the workability of fresh concrete. Additional specifically, it
measures the consistency of the concrete in that specific batch.
(M20, M25, M30). This test is perform to check the consistency of
freshly concrete slump 0-25mm, low workability mixes 10-40mm, medium workability mixes; 50-90mm for normal reinforcement
concrete placed with vibration , high workability
Prepare a paste of weighed quantity of cement (approx. 400
gems) with the weighed quantity of water (start from 20%-25%)
taking care that mixing (gauging) remains between 3 to 5 minutes
and mixing shall be completed before any signs of setting becomes
visible. Fill the vacant mold with the paste, the mould should rest
on non-porous base. Place the mold under Vicat apparatus. The
plunger attached to a movable rod is gently lowered on the paste.
Settlement of a plunger is noted, penetration from the bottom is
equal to the difference of mold height and settlement of plunger. If
penetration of the plunger is within 5-7mm from the bottom, then
water added is correct. Otherwise, water is added and replace is
Dry the pycnometer and weight it with its limit (W1). Obtain
about 200gms of oven sand passing through 4.75mm sieve
into the pycnometer and weight again (W2). Thoroughly dry
the pycnometer from outside and weight it (W3). Weight the
pycnometer after drying it on the outside thoroughly (W4). Do
another time the procedure for three samples (Table 1).
G =W2 −W1 (W2 −W1) − (W3−W4)
W1=Empty weight of pycnometer
W2=Weight of pycnometer + oven dry soil.
W3=Weight of pycnometer + oven dry soil + water
W4=Weight of pycnometer + water (Table 2) specific gravity
of fine aggregate
The fine aggregate passing through is 4.75mm sieve is taken
about 1kg and dehydrated inside an oven at a high temperature
of 110ºc±5ºc for after 24 hours and cooled to room temperature.
Its weight is taken as (W1 g).the dried fine aggregate is immersed
in clean water at a temperature 27ºc±2ºc for 24 hours. The fine
aggregate is removed from the water. Within three minutes from
the removal of water, the weight of fine aggregate W2 is found out.
The above procedure is repeated for various samples (Table 5-11).
A concrete test is performed to study additional concerning
the property of a specific example of concrete . A number of
dissimilar tests can be performed on concrete in cooperation, on
a job location, and in a laboratory. Because concrete is significant
structural elements, testing is binding in many regions of the world,
and construction companies must be used refer documentation
of their testing and results when asked to accomplish so by
government legislature .
Slump test the workability of all concrete mixture was
determine through slump test utilizing a metallic slump mould
. The difference in level between the height of mould and
that of highest point of the subsided concrete was measured and
reported as slump. This test is performed to check the consistency
of freshly made concrete . Consistency is a term very closely
related to workability.
The determination of compressive strength is primarily
mean to withstand compressive stress as concrete is strong
in compression .higher the compressive strength better is the
durability and bond strength which is very important in quality
control of concrete. Select a suitable proportion of cement, fine
aggregate and coarse aggregate. The mould greased with oil and
the concrete was compacted in it with the tamping rod and trowel.
The mould after filling with concrete was placed on placed on the
vibration table. Number of concrete are prepared like this were
placed for curing which are taken out at different time periods
and then placed in compression testing machine. The load was
gradually applied and the value at which the maximum failure
was noted and the values are tabulated  (Table 12) (Figure 8).
The result of the variation of compressive strength and split
tensile strength of concrete produced by replacing cement with
glass powder with eggshell ash for 7, 14 & 28 days . From
the above-said combinations, 30% (20% glass powder and 10%
eggshell ash) achieve good workability, compressive strength and
split tensile strength of concrete than the other combinations. So
it is optimum and recommended for the structural purposes.
From our investigation for M20 grade concrete by replacing
40% also it attain 20km/m3.so we can make it as a practice by
replacing 40% in all conventional buildings. It also makes it a
economical and eco-friendly building . The above-mentioned
work of various researchers and our present experimental work,
it is clear that glass powder and eggshell ash can be used as a
partial replacement of cement in concrete because of its increased
workability, strength parameters like compressive strength and
split tensile strength . As for disposal, utilization of waste
glass powder and eggshell ash in concrete will not only provide
economic, it will also help in reducing disposal problems.
Partial replacement of cement with glass powder and
eggshell powder ash in concrete these paper works fully ready
to worn risks not supporting any funding in the institute. It’s
highly suggested the partial replacement of 20% of glass powder
and 15% of eggshell ash powder in concrete. It better results in
compared the normal concrete.