Experiment: Make Binding Forces Visible-
Molecular Binding Forces, Recycling/Reuse,
Life Cycle Engineering (LCE)
Fraunhofer Institute Chemical Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
Submission:July 30, 2020; Published: August 26, 2020
*Corresponding author: Peter Eyerer, Fraunhofer Institute Chemical Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
How to cite this article:Eyerer P. Experiment: Make Binding Forces Visible- Molecular Binding Forces, Recycling/Reuse, Life Cycle Engineering (LCE).
Academ J Polym Sci. 2020; 4(4): 555641. DOI: 10.19080/AJOP.2020.04.555641
A very simple experiment shows students the difference between primary and secondary molecular binding forces. Use an empty plastic cup for milk, yoghurt or coffee and destroy it by pressing the cup together. You will watch cracks only longitudinal the cup. Try to break the cup horizontally you will fail. What you observe are the secondary binding forces between the molecules oriented along the length of the cup versus the primary binding forces perpendicular to the long side of cup.
Keywords:Molecular Binding Forces; Recycling/Reuse; Life Cycle Engineering (LCE)
[answer: Are the primary molecular binding forces (within the molecular chain acting binding forces, i.e. between primarily connected atoms) actually significantly stronger than the secondary binding forces (between molecules acting forces)? How can a yoghurt cup be reused in a cup of the same application without violating high hygiene regulations in Germany? What role has Life Cycle Engineering for product developers play in the industry? For answers: Students should examine a yoghurt or milk cup.] [1,2].
[answer: The shelf life of packaging helps to mechanically preserve food and make it durable for longer. If the digestion breaks easily, e.g. when falling down, damage to the goods and dirt occur. With this experiment, the students understand how the processing of plastics influences the product properties, how to basics of chemistry i.e. binding forces can be easily (and surprisingly) make visible and tangible and how to intelligently understand recycled material in food packaging (for hygienic reasons almost impossible!).]
[answer: We all use plastic packaging and throw them away carelessly after use. Mostly we are still annoyed about the
voluminous amounts of garbage. And we are surprised how much brain lard and unexpected highly interesting effects, however, are often stuck in such “worthless” products.]
[solution: the cup was deep drawn below the plastic melting temperature or injection molded above the melting temperature; the macromolecules are as a result shear forces oriented in the
longitudinal direction. When breaking, the majority of the approx.
factor 20 - 35 weaker secondary binding forces act between
the polymer molecules; while the binding forces in the chain
(between the stronger C-C-bindings) are stressed at right angle
they guarantee a high strength. ] [3-8].
[solution: biaxially oriented films during production result in
macromolecule chains in both directions (offset by 90°); this
is followed by high primary bonds and correspondingly high
strength biaxially. ]
A short summary will be found in . Plastic packaging
producers are well advised to certificate their packaging standards
after British Retail Consortium (BRC) of the Institute of Packaging.
This is a surrounding standard for quality, hygiene and product
safety. Alternatively, the German/European DIN EN 15593
standards is comparable to BRC. In April 2020, the Fraunhofer IVV
published an investigation about disruptive smelling in recycling
plastic as LD PE and PET  which shows still a lot of open
[answer: They are intended to provide an insight into the
complexity of today’s mass-produced plastic goods. They will also
learn about the chemical and mechanical fundamentals of plastics
and get an initial idea of engineering. A qualitative discussion
about holistic thinking in terms of Life Cycle Engineering
(technical, economical, environmental, social) creates awareness
of systemic thinking.]
[answer: Plastics, their advantages and disadvantages as
well as their recycling are an up-to-date theme. In this way,
plastics affect a number of important aspects, such as resource
consumption, consumer behavior, closed loop economy, Life Cycle Engineering, processing and handling materials, environmental